WAGL-300, WLB-300, WMEC-300
Call Sign: NRPQ
Builder: Marine Iron & Shipbuilding Corporation, Duluth, MN
Builder's Number: CG-130
Length: 180' oa
Beam: 37' mb
Draft: 12' max (1945); 14' 7" (1966)
Displacement: 935 fl (1945); 1,026 fl (1966); 700 light (1966)
Keel Laid: 29 April 1942
Launched: 15 August 1942
Commissioned: 3 April 1943
Decommissioned: 1 September 1994
Status: Transferred to Mexico but delivery was refused in February 1995; Transferred to Dominican Republic on 16 September 1995
Propulsion: 1 electric motor connected to 2 Westinghouse generators driven by 2 Cooper-Bessemer-type GND-8, 4-cycle diesels; single screw
Top speed: 13.0 kts sustained (1945); 11.9 kts sustained (1966)
Economic speed: 8.3 kts (1945); 8.5 kts (1966)
Complement: 6 Officers, 74 men (1945); 4 officers, 2 warrants, 47 men (1966)
Radar: Bk (1943); SLa-1 (1945)
Sonar: WEA-2 (1945)
Armament: 1-3"/50 (single), 4-20mm/80 (single), 2 depth charge tracks, 2 Mousetraps, 4 Y-guns (1945); None (1966)
When the US Coast Guard absorbed the Bureau of Lighthouses on 1 July 1939, Juniper, a 177-foot all welded steel buoy tender, was under construction and plans for a successor were on the drawing board. Plans initiated by the Bureau of Lighthouses called for the construction of several identical buoy tenders to replace existing coastal buoy tenders. The preliminary designs generated by the Bureau were for a vessel similar to Juniper. When the Aids to Navigation (ATON) system transferred to Coast Guard control, USCG planners reviewed the preliminary plans for the new class of buoy tenders and modified them to meet the service’s multi-mission role. To be an effective part of the Coast Guard, the new buoy tenders needed to be multi-purpose platforms. They had to be capable of conducting Search and Rescue (SAR) and Law Enforcement (LE) missions, as well as their primary mission tending ATON. On 20 January 1941 the US Coast Guard contracted Marine Iron and Shipbuilding Company of Duluth , Minnesota to build the design based on Juniper and modified to meet the service’s requirements. On 31 March 1941 Marine Iron and Shipbuilding laid the keel for the first vessel of the new buoy tender class. The new vessel measured 180 feet overall and had a beam of 37 feet at the extreme. She had a displacement of 935 tons and drew 12 feet. The new design was similar to Juniper in appearance but did exhibit some important differences. Gone was the turtle back forecastle. A notched forefoot, ice-belt at the waterline, and reinforced bow gave the vessel icebreaking capabilities. Extending the superstructure to the ship’s sides increased interior volume above the main deck. A single propeller, turned by an electric motor powered by twin diesel generators, replaced the twin-screw arrangement. The 30,000-gallon fuel capacity gave the new design a range of 12,000 miles at a 12-knot cruising speed; at 8.3 knots the cruising range increased to 17,000 miles. Finer lines at the bow and stern increased the new tender’s sea keeping ability in rough weather; an increase in draft also promoted seaworthiness. Numerous minor alterations increased the vessel’s utility as a SAR platform while deck-mounted guns and depth charge racks supported military duties. Marine Iron and Shipbuilding launched the prototype vessel on 25 November 1941, even as three more took shape. Preparations also went forward to begin a fifth vessel. By the time they commissioned the first 180, Cactus, on 1 September 1942 twelve vessels were under construction at the Marine Iron shipyard and at the Zenith Dredge Company shipyard, also in Duluth . The initial designation for the new buoy tenders was WAGL, which was a US Navy designation denoting an auxiliary vessel, lighthouse tender. The designation changed from WAGL to WLB in 1965. A few of the 180s have been designated as other types of vessels over the years; three became WMECs (medium endurance cutters), one of those, Evergreen, was a WAGO (oceanographic research vessel) before it became a WMEC. Gentian was a WMEC for a time and was then designated a WIX (Training Cutter) in 1999. Though designations have changed over time, each vessel’s hull number has remained the same since commissioning.
DIFFERENCES WITHIN THE 180' CLASS
Six “B” or Mesquite class tenders followed the initial production run of thirteen vessels in the “A’ or Cactus-class. The first Mesquite-class tender hit the water on 14 November 1942. Marine Iron and Shipbuilding built all except one of the Mesquite-class. The USCG built the lone exception, Ironwood, at the service’s shipyard in Curtis Bay, Maryland. Twenty Iris or “C” class vessels followed the Mesquite-class tenders. The first launch of an Iris class vessel took place on 18 June 1943, and the final addition to the class slipped off the ways on 18 May 1944. Differences among the three classes were minimal. Their basic dimensions, length and beam were the same and draft varied based on loading. All were built of welded steel along the same framing pattern and with very similar internal and external layouts. All three classes could steam 8,000 miles at 13 knots, 12,000 miles at 12 knots, and 17,000 miles at 8.3 knots; though the “B” and “C” class vessels had engines with 20 percent more power than the “A” class. The “A” class vessels could carry the most fuel with a tank capacity of 30,000 gallons. The “C” class carried 29,335 gallons and the “B” class about 700 gallons less. The layout of the Commanding Officer’s cabin and the radio room was slightly different in the “A” class vessels. The bridge wing door on the “B” and “C” vessels opened to the side while the doors on the “A” vessels opened forward. The cargo holds as originally laid out in the “C” were larger, by a nominal amount, than those in the other vessels. To hoist buoys and cargo, the “A” vessels carried an A-frame structure that straddled the superstructure and supported the cargo boom. The other two classes were fitted with power vangs that attached to the bridge wings and manipulated the cargo boom. The “A” vessels were originally fitted with manilla line as part of the cargo handling system while the second and third generation vessels used wire rope. From the outside, other than the A-frame used in the first production run, the three classes were almost indistinguishable. Over the years their internal differences and variation in equipment were minimized by successive overhauls and improvements. Moreover, it does not appear that any one of the three classes was superior to the other two in the eyes of the US Coast Guard administration or the men who manned the buoy tender fleet. Tenders from each of the three classes remained in use past the turn of the 21st century. It usually took from two to four months between the time shipyard workers laid a keel and the day the vessel slipped off the ways. Once launched, however, the tenders were far from ready for service. The practice was to build the superstructure, finish the interior, and complete the machinery installation while the vessel was floating. Hence, on launch day the tenders were little more than finished hulls. As the shipyard workers neared the end of the building process, the Coast Guard would begin assigning officers and men to the vessels. Once each vessel was complete and ready to enter active service, the US Coast Guard commissioned her as part of the fleet. Often the commissioning ceremonies took place after the tender had departed from Duluth and arrived at an initial duty station. For the 180s as a whole, it took an average period of 308 days to go from the beginning of construction to commissioning. Divided according to sub-class, the elapsed time from keel laying to commissioning averaged 360 days for the Cactus-class; 323 days for the Mesquite-class; and 269 days for the Iris-class. The building process averaged 192,018 man-hours of labor per vessel. In keeping with the Lighthouse Service practice of naming tenders after foliage, all of the 180s were named after trees, shrubs, or flowers.
THE 180s GO TO WAR
Though the design was completed before US entry into World War II, several of the vessels were already under construction when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor; the tenders were very much a product of the war. The number of tenders built and the rapidity with which the shipyards turned them out is indicative of this nation’s massive industrial output during the war years. Before the war, no group of thirty-nine steel ships had been produced in three years. Yet, during the period 1941-1944 the entire production run of the class went from blueprints to completed ships during a time when the United States was producing thousands of other ships at yards around the country. With the lone exception of the tender built at the Coast Guard Yard at Curtis Bay in Baltimore, Maryland, two commercial shipyards in Duluth, Minnesota built all the 180s. To achieve this level of production, even as much of the prewar workforce volunteered or was drafted for military service, the shipyards turned to a new source of labor. The Duluth shipyards, like industrial operations nationwide, began to recruit women. As Duluth ’s men filed off to war as soldiers, sailors, airmen, and marines, Duluth ’s women filed into the shipyards to become welders, machinists, and electricians. By the end of the war Duluth ’s “welderettes” numbered 3,500 of the 14,000 persons laboring through the cold Minnesota winters to turn out ships for the war effort. The total number of civilian shipyard workers employed by Marine Iron and Zenith Dredge peaked at 1,200 and 1,500 respectively. Thus, the US Coast Guard 180s are historically significant not only as the first class of modern buoy tenders and as part of an unprecedented military build-up but also as milestones in labor history American women helped build the 180s during the period when women first began to enter the industrial workforce. Even after commissioning most vessels did not immediately enter regular service. Instead the tenders embarked on shakedown cruises to test the various mechanical, electrical, and hydraulic systems. The shakedown cruises also offered an opportunity for crew orientation and training. It was rare that the shakedown cruise did not reveal some defective system and most vessels returned to a shipyard to have any glitches repaired. Occasionally the return to the shipyard meant going back to Zenith Dredge or Marine Iron and Shipbuilding in Duluth. Before deployment to their duty stations, other vessels went to the USCG yard at Curtis Bay which provided an opportunity to outfit the vessels with any additional equipment or to carry out any modifications needed at the vessels’ new duty stations.
The work done by the men and women of Duluth produced finished buoy tenders, but not warships. It would be up to military technicians to make the 180s combat-ready. Many of the buoy tenders were destined to operate far from home in a variety of war zones as part of a navy locked in a two-ocean war. To defend themselves against air attack, the tenders were fitted with 20mm guns, usually four of them, mounted high on the superstructure and on the aft portions of the main deck. Armorers outfitted the 180s with a single 3" cannon mounted aft of the stack to defend against aircraft and engage small surface or shore targets. They installed depth charge racks as well as K- and V-type launchers on the stern to deploy depth charges in case the vessels ever encountered enemy submarines. Some 180s were also fitted with a device known as a 'mousetrap'. This weapon system launched rocket-propelled explosive charges that would explode on contact with a submarine’s hull. The mousetrap system was generally mounted on the bow so the launchers could fire ahead of the vessel. Besides the heavier weapons systems, the tenders carried assorted small arms. Technicians installed radar and sonar systems to help the 180s find targets or avoid enemy units. The US Coast Guard shipyard at Curtis Bay, Maryland carried out the bulk of the work that prepared the buoy tenders for duty overseas.
Buoy tenders from the 180 classes operating in the Atlantic Theater saw service from the frigid waters around Greenland to the tropical coast of Brazil. They tended buoys, broke ice, and provided assistance to vessels in need. They also served as the armed escorts for merchant convoys, hunted U-boats, and carried supplies to far-flung installations. The 180s were not limited to coastal duty. Several vessels in the class were dispatched thousands of miles out into the Atlantic to collect important meteorological data that allowed military planners to schedule and route aircraft flights to Europe. In the Pacific Theater the 180s covered thousands of miles of open ocean in pursuit of their varied duties. Several vessels worked to establish Long-Range Aids-to-Navigation (LORAN) station chains in the South Pacific while others conducted similar operations in the Bering Sea. Navy commanders regularly dispatched 180s to carry supplies and personnel between installations throughout the theatre. The lift capacity and towing features of the tenders helped them carry out salvage work. The 180s fought shipboard fires and rescued Allied personnel from damaged vessels. Besides this range of duties, all the tenders fulfilled their design function on a regular basis. They serviced ATON along the West Coast, in the waters of the Bering Sea, and across the Pacific. They also set and serviced moorings and mooring buoys for naval and merchant vessels throughout the war zone. Their ATON work was especially important since many of the areas in which U.S. forces operated were very poorly charted or uncharted altogether. The work done by the 180s allowed thousands of Allied ships to operate along routes and in harbors far removed from pre-war shipping lanes. The buoy tenders never received the acclaim afforded larger warships, but their efforts did not go unnoticed. In the words of a contemporary observer:
As the battleships and assault troop and cargo ships do the heavy work, the Coast Guard tenders scurry alongside, paving the broken way for the miracle of supply which follows. They'll lay cables in the ocean bed, fight fires and perform rescue and salvage chores. A tender may moor an anchor for battleships or tow a Navy seaplane caught on a reef-it's all in a day's work.
None of the 180s were lost to enemy action during the war. Those in the Atlantic Theater operated under the threat of German U-boats, but the few encounters saw the cutters dropping depth charges on the suspected positions of submerged U-boats and receiving no return fire. A German U-boat sank one U.S. Coast Guard buoy tender from another class, Acacia (WAGL-200), while she operated in the Caribbean Sea. Acacia was one of the ex-Army mine-planters acquired by the Lighthouse Bureau after WWI. The USCG named a "C" class 180 in honor of the sunken vessel. Though the 180s serving in the Pacific came under enemy air attack on many occasions, no severe damage resulted. The 180s contributed to the screen of anti-aircraft fire around the fleet during air raids and shot down several enemy aircraft while contributing to the destruction of others. One tender suffered significant damage from an explosion attributed to a floating Japanese mine. There were no encounters between the buoy tenders and Japanese submarines or surface units. Weather was also a formidable adversary. Tenders operating in the northern reaches of both oceans frequently battled ice and snow as they went about their work. Tenders in the Atlantic Theatre were subjected to dangerously high winds and waves during storms, especially during winter storms on the North Atlantic. They also had to dodge hurricanes sweeping up from the tropics during the summer and fall months. The Pacific 180s, besides normal ocean storms, were subjected to the fury of powerful typhoons that regularly sank large ships. Heat was a problem in both theatres and, while never a grave threat to the vessels; it made life unpleasant for crews operating near the equator in the days before air conditioning. The 180s survived enemy action and the dangers of operating in the maritime environment in any weather. Every vessel survived the conflict and the class provided valuable service in the war effort. Their endeavors made possible the safe navigation of thousands of warships and merchantmen as the Allied powers dispatched convoys, battle groups, and invasion fleets to the far reaches of the Pacific and set up a floating conveyor belt carrying millions of tons of war materiel across the Atlantic.
While a few vessels were left overseas to repair and improve ATON systems in the various Pacific island groups, most of the 180s returned to the United States where their wartime crews returned to civilian life. The drop in military manning levels, however, was so precipitous that the US Coast Guard had to decommission several 180s temporarily, simply because there were no crews available. Like their crews returning to civilian life, the buoy tenders themselves underwent a radical change in appearance. Black hulls and gleaming white topsides replaced the haze gray and oceanic camouflage schemes that helped to hide the tenders from enemy eyes during the war years. Shipyard workers stripped depth charge racks and mousetrap launchers from the vessels. Cutters re-assigned to the Great Lakes had their 3" and 20mm guns removed. Those remaining overseas or assigned to coastal districts kept some of their armaments, but the guns spent most of their time concealed beneath canvas covers. With the war’s end service on the buoy tenders was more mundane. Instead of operating as part of vast naval fleets and anchoring in the company of battleships, the 180s went about their prescribed missions alone. For the most part they spent their time tending buoys and other ATON. This was an especially important part of returning American maritime commerce to a peacetime footing as some ATON were neglected during the war while others were purposely disestablished to prevent their use by enemy forces. Similarly, many ATON established during the war required removal, as they were non-essential to normal maritime commerce. Most buoy tenders returning stateside quickly joined their domestic counterparts in an unending routine of hauling buoys, carrying out maintenance on various ATON, and delivering supplies to out of the way navigational installations.
The process of tending or servicing buoys has been the basic mission of the 180s throughout their careers. It is a process that has evolved through several important technological changes but one that remains fundamentally the same. Tending an ATON begins with traveling to its location and making contact. Once on scene, the conning officer maneuvers the vessel alongside the buoy so the deck force can snag it with reaching poles. Approaching a buoy is often a tricky and hazardous proposition since the marker's very purpose is often to mark shallow water or other hazards to navigation. The difficult nature of the task is reflected in the records of frequent groundings by the buoy tender fleet. The 180s original design, specifically single screw propulsion, meant they were not the most maneuverable platforms and required a skilled ship handler to bring them alongside an ATON. The addition of bow thrusters during later renovations made them more nimble during close quarters maneuvering. Once alongside a buoy, the deck crew snags it and then attaches the hook from the cargo boom to a lifting eye on the marker. Then the boom operator lifts the buoy out of the water and deposits it on the open well deck in front of the superstructure where it is secured. The process of recovering the buoy has not changed in any appreciable way over the years. Bringing the buoy on board is less than half the recovery process. A concrete block or 'sinker' weighing many thousands of pounds anchors each buoy. Heavy steel chain links the anchor block to the floating buoy. In order to conduct a thorough inspection of the whole system, the chain and sinker must be brought up. The mooring chain is led through a chain stopper on the edge of the well deck. The chain stopper is a mechanical device that prevents chain from slipping back overboard, essentially a one-way valve for chain. After the chain is secure in the chain stopper the boom operator reaches as far down the chain as possible and snags a length of chain, which is pulled up, laid in the chain stopper, and secured on deck with quick-releasing pelican clamps as a safety mechanism. Once the chain is secure, the boom snags another length and hauls it up. In this hand-over-hand fashion the boom operator hauls up the entire mooring. Often the sinker is left hanging overboard on the outside of the chain stopper. This part of the recovery process has changed since the 180s entered service. Initially, the vessels did not have a chain stopper mechanism, and chain was secured only by tie downs when the boom released one length to grab another. The crew of Tupelo is credited with inventing and demonstrating the value of a prototype chain stopper in 1948. With buoy, chain, and sinker resting on the buoy deck, or secured in the chain stopper, the deck force can begin working. This is the opportunity to inspect the whole system and do any needed painting, repair any structural damage, and check the batteries if it is a lighted ATON. The biggest change in this area over the years has been the shift from gas to electric lights, followed by the addition of solar panels to lighted buoys. The panels greatly extend battery life, thereby making battery replacement a less common chore. Sweetgum conducted the first at-sea “solarization” of a lighted buoy. At present all lighted buoys mount solar panels to extend battery life and improve the reliability of the light. Once serviced, the buoy must be returned to its charted position. Similarly, new or replacement buoys must be placed exactly on station. To accomplish this task, navigators feed information from the ship's satellite navigation system to the conning officer who guides the vessel to the correct place over the sea bottom. Once on station the bridge tells the deck force to release the sinker. A blow with a sledgehammer trips the chain stopper's release mechanism. This release sends the sinker to the bottom. The deck crew cuts or releases any tie downs securing the chain to the deck. The process of finding the exact position where the sinker belongs has changed dramatically over time. Prior to the introduction of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) the conning officer was directed to the correct spot by a team of at least three crewmembers using survey sextants to measure horizontal angles to known landmarks visible from the vessel. This process, while accurate when done by experienced navigators, was time consuming and entailed more chance for error than today's use of computerized navigation systems. The shift from sextants to differential GPS has improved the efficiency of repositioning ATON. Not all buoy stations are within sight of land and sextant angles require fixed landmarks. In the days before GPS the Coast Guard used LORAN or radar ranges to position these offshore markers. GPS is more accurate than these older navigational tools and has increased the accuracy of placement for offshore buoys. Though the missions of the 180s became more mundane after World War II, they were not without the possibility of excitement and danger. The US Coast Guard had designed the 180s as functional SAR platforms and that capability, proven by rescues during the war, allowed them to respond to emergency calls throughout US waters. As the buoy tenders went about their ATON work, they were always on standby for dispatch to the aid of nearby mariners in distress. Dovetailing nicely with other SAR features was their ability to break ice on frozen waterways. This meant they could not only clear shipping lanes for routine commerce, but also go to the aid of other vessels trapped in the ice. Hence, they could carry out rescues that were impossible for most cutters and patrol boats. Beyond their seaworthiness and icebreaking capabilities, the buoy tender's SAR value was augmented by equipment for towing other vessels and the ability to fight fires on ships or along the shore.
NEW ROLE FOR THE 180S
By the late 1940s all the temporarily decommissioned buoy tenders had returned to service as manpower levels stabilized. All thirty-nine members of the type were engaged in ATON, SAR, and, depending on their location, icebreaking duties. Their combined operations covered the entire shoreline of the continental United States, the waters around Hawaii and Alaska, and large portions of the Pacific Ocean . During the postwar years the 180s were also increasingly involved in law enforcement activities. These efforts centered on two disparate pursuits. The buoy tenders helped enforce various federal fishing laws and regulations, with particular focus on fishing in the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska. The efforts emphasized keeping foreign fishing vessels out of U.S. waters and enforcement of international agreements on the high seas. Tenders stationed farther south along the California coast and those in the Southeastern United States were concerned with drug smuggling more than illegal fishing. As the flow of illicit drugs entering the U.S. increased, many cutters, 180s included, went out to sea to meet vessels headed for American ports, not to provide aid or check their fishing catch but to search them for cargoes of contraband. The efforts to interdict drug smugglers increased throughout the latter half of the century as the volume of smuggling increased. In the 1980s and 1990s preventing undocumented immigrants from entering the US by sea was added to the list of maritime law enforcement activities pursued by the 180s.
CONTINUING MILITARY SERVICE
The 180s saw limited duty in the Korean War and significant action in Vietnam. Five of the buoy tenders served in the waters around South Vietnam. None took up permanent station in the theater; instead, they rotated through short tours from homeports in the Philippines and elsewhere in the Pacific. The vessels spent most of their time placing and maintaining ATON marking coastal and inland waterways. Simultaneously, they conducted extensive training of Vietnamese nationals in preparation for the day when the ATON system passed into Vietnamese hands. This transfer was completed in 1972. Other missions carried out by the 180s serving in the war zone included cargo transport, survey work, and support of efforts to interdict enemy supply lines. Most of the 180s did not see wartime action after their service in World War II. This does not mean, however, that military training was not part of the buoy tender's overall mission. The potential military role of the Coast Guard, however, means USCG units participate in periodic military exercises and operations with the US Navy and allied maritime forces. As part of the US Coast Guard, the buoy tenders regularly drilled to improve their ability to find enemy forces, engage potential targets, survive battle damage, and work in concert with naval units. These maritime defense activities have been ongoing throughout the class' history and continue today.
THE FLEET SHRINKS
By the early 1970s the 180s had reached their thirtieth anniversaries as Coast Guard cutters. It was during this decade that the buoy tender inventory began to shrink. Appropriately enough, the first to go was Cactus, the first built. Cactus ran hard aground in 1971 and the damage was so extensive that the government decided to decommission the vessel rather than repair her. The USCG decommissioned the first of the 180s two days shy of the thirtieth anniversary of her launch. Two more 180s left active duty, albeit less traumatically and according to longstanding plans, the following year. A fourth vessel left service in 1973 and two more followed in 1975. These vessels, even Cactus, went on to second careers in the hands of foreign governments or private owners.
Only one buoy tender was decommissioned by design in the 1980s; Sagebrush left active duty in April 1988, more than forty-four years after her commissioning. It was, however, a hard decade on the 180 fleet. On 28 January 1980, Blackthorn collided with a commercial tanker in Tampa Bay, Florida . The collision holed and capsized the buoy tender and it sank quickly, killing twenty-three members of the crew. In December 1989 Mesquite grounded on a rock pinnacle jutting from the bottom of Lake Superior. The crew safely abandoned ship in lifeboats, but the vessel suffered severe damage after pounding against the rocks during winter storms. USCG planners decided to decommission Mesquite soon after the accident and a commercial salvage company scuttled her in 1990. Three of the buoy tenders became Medium Endurance cutters (WMEC) during the 1980s. These conversions entailed the removal of the buoy handling gear and reassignment to predominately LE and SAR patrol duties.
The US Coast Guard decommissioned fourteen buoy tenders in the 1990s and seven more in the early years of the next decade. In early 2002, eight of the thirty-nine 180s remained in service as USCG buoy tenders. One other 180 remained in commission as a cutter, but operated in the role of a training and support vessel. Few of the decommissioned cutters have actually been destroyed or dismantled. Instead, they can be found throughout the world. A number were transferred overseas under the Foreign Military Sales Program and serve the navies of countries friendly to the United States. Two have embarked on careers as fishing vessels. One serves as a mobile base and supply ship for a missionary group working in the Pacific. Even Cactus, first of the 180s, first wrecked, and first decommissioned, still exists. The remains of the tender built in 1941 serve as a barge in the Pacific Northwest. The 180s that have passed out of use entirely were sunk as reefs or ended their lives as targets for naval munitions tests.
MAINTENANCE, REPAIR, AND OVERHAUL
The 180-footer design, drawn up before World War II and built in the early 1940s, has demonstrated remarkable longevity. The US Coast Guard decommissioned the bulk of the class only within the last decade and nine vessels continue to serve on active duty, sixty years after they were built and well past the projected life span of any military vessel. This is not to say that the 180s simply steamed out of the shipyard after their completion and were so well built that they lasted for five or six decades. To keep these buoy tenders on active duty the US Coast Guard has expended millions of dollars. The efforts that kept the 180s operating into the twenty-first century began in the early 1940s. Even as they went about their duties in the midst of war, maintenance remained a regular part of every tender's routine. Maintenance carried out by the tender crews as part of the everyday routine was interspersed with “availability” periods. During these periods, scheduled at the request of the tender's captain or by orders sent down the chain of command, the individual tenders temporarily left service while the regular crew, often augmented by ship repair specialists, addressed maintenance issues too complex to handle while the vessel pursued its regular mission. The availability periods took many forms. In the simplest incarnation, the tender would anchor out of the way or tie up alongside a dock after a long voyage or operation and the whole crew would devote a few days to putting everything in order. In instances where the vessels required extensive work, the tenders visited shipyards in the US or at naval bases overseas. A visit to a shipyard entailed any number of repairs including time in a drydock for work on the hull and exterior propulsion equipment. After the war the 180s were placed on a cyclical maintenance schedule. Exact timetables varied from ship to ship and according to the service's needs, but on average, each cutter visited a shipyard for a yard period or “availability” on a biannual basis. Time in the yard allowed for the undertaking of major repairs and improvements as well as routine maintenance chores like painting the hull. Some of these yard periods took place at the US Coast Guard's yard in Curtis Bay, but most occurred at commercial shipyards near the individual tender's homeport. Buoy tenders were, of course, sent to the nearest yard equipped to handle the problem after groundings or other mishaps. In a few instances the Curtis Bay yard carried out special work to prepare vessels for unique projects. This was the case when Spar and Bramble were readied for a trip through the Northwest Passage and Evergreen underwent conversion to become an oceanographic research vessel. Cyclical yard periods and the efforts of personnel stationed on the buoy tenders kept them in proper shape for many years. Nevertheless, by the 1970s the vessels had reached the end of their projected thirty-year life spans and many were in need of substantial overhauls if their service careers were to continue. The first round of overhauls to affect the 180 fleet, known as “Austere Renovations”, began in 1974. Improvements carried out as part of the Austere Renovation program consisted of habitability improvements, engineering improvements, and equipment upgrades. The habitability improvements included modernization of the World War II-era crew quarters and sanitary facilities, installation of a crew lounge, remodeling of the dispensary area, and improved climate control systems. Work in the engineering spaces centered on the overhaul of the propulsion systems and a general modernization of the engineering plant. Equipment upgrades elsewhere included installation of modern electronics and replacement of aging deck machinery. Four buoy tenders went through the Austere Renovation program. At about the same time the Austere renovations commenced, the US Coast Guard began rotating other 180s through shipyards for more extensive improvements as part of the 'Major Renovation' (MAJREN) program. Under the MAJREN program, vessels received new diesel engines while the main electrical motor and its control systems underwent a thorough overhaul. New electrical wiring and switchboards were installed, as were entirely new water piping and sewage handling systems. Each vessel received a bow thruster to improve its maneuverability in close quarters. Future crews benefited from the replacement and modernization of all furnishings in the living areas. Decreasing the size of the forward hold allowed the expansion of the living area itself. Fourteen 180s went through the MAJREN program. These repairs and improvements extended each vessels service life by an estimated ten to fifteen years. The third renovation program to affect members of the 180 classes was the Service Life Extension Program (SLEP). This program began in 1983 and culminated a decade later. These renovations all took place at Curtis Bay and involved vessels that previously went through the MAJREN program. Whereas, Austere and MAJREN had entailed significant overhaul, the SLEP was the most extensive effort to extend the class' life span. During the yard periods new main engines and generators replaced the aging power plants. Upgrades and replacement components served to modernize the electrical systems. Shipyard technicians installed new navigational systems and computer controls for the engineering systems. SLEP work was far more than the replacement or upgrade of various systems or simply the addition of new equipment; it also entailed significant structural changes. Workers sandblasted each vessel throughout to remove all paint and expose the underlying steel for careful inspection. Shipyard workers tore away the existing deckhouse and replaced it with a new structure that included an expanded pilothouse, ship's office, and radio room. Internal changes included the installation of smaller forward tanks and the conversion of the forward cargo hold to make room for the installation of more berthing space, including bunks and heads for female sailors and a crew lounge. The reconfigured space also included boatswain, electrical, damage control, and electronics workshops. Work was done in the internal spaces to improve the watertight integrity of the vessel. Up on deck, a hydraulic system replaced the electric weight handling gear and the boom operator's booth was relocated. For Cactus class vessels SLEP included removal of the A-frame and reconfiguring the cargo handling system so the boom attached to the bridge wings. Hydraulic weight handling systems were also added to the boat davits on either side of the superstructure. The SLEP overhauls were extensive and they were also time consuming and costly. The average cost for a single tender to pass through the SLEP was $11 million. Time spent in the yard averaged eighteen months or, according to the analysis of two representative overhauls, 210,000-215,000 man-hours by shipyard workers. Like the earlier programs, the SLEP helped to extend the service life span of the aging buoy tenders. Coast Guard projections during the period estimated the SLEP would extend vessel life spans by fifteen to twenty years. Three SLEP vessels remain in service as of 2002. All other 180s that went through the SLEP program left service beginning in 1999.
Renovating and improving the 180s bought time, but it did not ameliorate a basic problem facing the service. The US Coast Guard would eventually need to replace the 180s. While a steel vessel can be kept functioning almost in perpetuity, the cost of doing so eventually reaches a point where replacement is the preferred option. The savings can be measured in monetary terms as well as improved efficiency resulting from fewer breakdowns, less frequent yard periods, and the use of more advanced technologies. By the 1990s it was time to begin the lengthy process of creating a successor for the vessels one authority called, ". . . quite possibly the most versatile and useful cutter ever built for the Coast Guard," and, ". . . clearly the most multi-mission capable ship in the Black Fleet." An initial planning and consultation period ended in January 1993 when the USCG awarded a contract to Marinette Shipbuilding for the production of a new class of seagoing buoy tenders. Marinette Shipbuilding won a second contract in June 1993 for the construction of a new class of coastal buoy tender. The new seagoing tender class took the name of the prototype vessel: Juniper. The coastal tenders became the Keeper class, each named for a well-known lighthouse keeper from the past. The Juniper class vessels measure 225 feet in length, 46 feet in beam, and are propelled by two diesel engines driving a single reduction gear and a Controllable Pitch Propeller (CPP). Marinette builds them with both a bow and stern thruster, which combined with the CPP makes for a maneuverable platform. Like the 180s, they can handle limited icebreaking duties. The new seagoing tender incorporates many advances in maritime technology that allow the tenders, though larger than their predecessors, to operate effectively with a smaller crew.
Perhaps the most significant advance is the use of a dynamic positioning system (DPS) to help keep the tender on station. The DPS involves computerization of the systems that maneuver the vessel, namely propulsion and steering, combined with the latest in satellite navigation technology. This system allows the Juniper class vessels to maintain position within a 10-meter radius in 30-knot winds and 8' seas. Juniper passed from Marinette Shipbuilding to the USCG in 1996. Projections call for a total of sixteen Juniper class tenders. Keeper class tenders measure 175 feet in length and have a beam of 36 feet. They are the first USCG cutters propelled by a twin Z-Drive. This propulsion system is essentially a propeller installed within a nozzle that can rotate 360 degrees. This means thrust, in any amount manageable by the vessel's diesel engine, can be applied in any direction. The Z-Drive system, popular with many newer tugboats, combined with a bow thruster ensures the Keeper class tenders have excellent maneuverability and station-keeping qualities. Each vessel also carries dynamic positioning systems, honing the vessel's ability to hover on station even further. As of 2002 the USCG has fourteen Keeper class tenders in service. As the new seagoing and coastal tenders have entered service, the US Coast Guard has decommissioned the older 180s. At the beginning of 2002 there were nine of the old buoy tenders still in commission. They will phase out slowly and tentative plans call for Acacia to be the last in service with a decommissioning date sometime in 2006.
A GREAT DESIGN
The 180-foot buoy-tending cutters built for the US Coast Guard during the early 1940s are remarkable in terms of their longevity. Except the US Coast Guard's Storis, no other military vessels on active duty today served in World War II. The 180s longevity is not a case of superior construction, though they were undoubtedly built quite solidly. The service performed by the class for over sixty years is a function of their design. The 180s were extremely versatile and perfectly suited for their multifaceted role. They could break ice, replace a buoy, and save a sinking ship all in the course of a day's work. Moreover, they could complete these missions within sight of their homeport or steam across thousands of miles of ocean to complete an assigned task. They did not become outmoded until computers, satellites, and automation changed the way ships are built and equipped. The US Coast Guard spent time and money keeping the 180s in service long beyond their projected life span because that remained the best option. These ships that fought U-boats in World War II have spent millions of hours since making the world's waterways a safer place for science, commerce, and recreation. This was possible due to the design’s versatility and reliability. Obsolescence crept up on the 180s very slowly, producing a tenure unmatched in twentieth-century American maritime history. The 180-foot buoy tenders proved to be extremely versatile vessels during their long careers. Though all spent some portion of their time afloat servicing buoys, they served in many other pursuits as well. Many of these alternate activities revolved around the vessel's intended secondary missions, search and rescue, law enforcement, and icebreaking. Often, however, the tenders carried out missions never envisioned by their designers, ranging from transporting rare tropical fish to landing scientific parties on drifting icebergs. This plethora of pursuits when combined with the wide geographic distribution of the 180s makes it difficult to describe a typical or generic career for a 180. The oceangoing buoy tenders built for the US Coast Guard in the early 1940s served around the world and fulfilled the service's requirement for a true multi-mission capable platform.
World War II
USCGC Citrus was initially assigned to the Ninth District in April 1943. Homeported at Detroit, MI the cutter was to be used for general ATON and icebreaking on the Great Lakes. The cutter's commanding officer was LT Ralph Burns, USCG. The cutter was re-assigned to Alaska Sector, Northwestern Sea Frontier on 15 September 1943. Construction work on the Western Aleutian LORAN chain was begun during the latter part of 1943. Men and materials began to arrive at sites 62 (Sitka), 63 (Amchitka), and 64 (Attu) beginning early in November 1943. The job had to be undertaken at the worst time of year in order to make LORAN service available as a soon as possible to combat and supply forces who were in dire need of such service in the Western Aleutians. Citrus and two Liberty Ships, George Flavel and McKenzie, did the transporting Coast Guard construction crews erected Quonset huts for Construction Detachment "A" at Massacre Bay, Attu and at Baxter Cove, Adak. Unloading was accomplished by means of 5' x 7' steel pontoon-type barges at Adak. Arriving there on 24 December 1943, heavy ground swell made unloading materiel from the cutter to the barge precarious, but both barges made the beach about sundown, despite the report of a sudden squall. Temporary floodlights were then rigged and unloading operations continued until 1200 on Christmas Day. As the storm increased in intensity, Citrus was unable to maintain her anchorage and was forced to return to Massacre Bay to remain there until the storm subsided on 2 January 1944. Early in February 1944, a five-day storm swept the Massacre Bay area with winds up to 125 miles per hour.
At Attu Citrus took nine men off a swamped Army tug without loss of life and then sank the foundering tug with gunfire. Citrus also assisted in getting a liberty ship off the beach where it had been driven ashore by a severe storm. The cutter arrived at Ketchikan on 7 February 1944. On 20 February Citrus was dispatched to assist Mary D which was hard aground on Point St. Alban's Reef. She was eventually re-floated with the assistance of USCGC Hemlock and LT-151. More cargo had to be jettisoned before a 18 degree list was corrected and she could continue on to Ketchikan. Later on 27 February 1944, Citrus was dispatched to the assistance of Army tug ST-169 in distress in Chatham Strait with her crib tow lost. The tow was recovered by LT-140 after McLane had floated it. ST-169 was later located at the Todd Cannery at the entrance to the Peril Strait. On 17 October 1944 Citrus departed Petersburg to render assistance to ATS Brunswick aground in Wrangell Narrows. After 10 minutes Citrus pulled her afloat and the latter continued on under its own power. Citrus spent the remainder of the war conducting ATON, logistics, and vessel escort duties in Southwestern Alaskan waters.
From the end of the war until 29 June 1964 Citrus continued to be stationed at Ketchikan, AK and conducted ATON duties. On 9 September 1948 Citrus assisted MV Caledonia in Idaho Inlet. From 29-31 October 1948 the tender assisted USNS Mission Santa Cruz. From 13-19 February 1950 Citrus searched for a missing USAF plane near the Wrangell Narrows. During the course of 25-27 August 1950 the tender provided assistance to the barge Bisco 3 near Ratz Harbor, FV Vermay near Cape Muzon, and towed the power scow Chichagof near Cape Chacon. On 19 May 1951 Citrus escorted USCGC White Holly to Ketchikan after the latter struck a rock and was holed. On 25 May 1951 Citrus assisted FV Dolores near Point Gardner and from 21-27 July 1951 the cutter searched for a missing Canadian DC-4. During 15-19 January 1952 Citrus escorted CGC Cahoone to Sitka, AK. On 8 June 1952 the cutter towed FV Pioneer to Ketchikan, AK and assisted FV Hobo near Lincoln Island on 13 August 1952. Ten days later, on 23 August 1952 Citrus assisted FV Cinuk in the Behm Canal. On 24 August 1953 helped the tug Saturn recover its lost tow at 56 25 N, 14 28 W. Citrus then spent 25-30 August 1953 searching for, finding, and towing a scow to Ketchikan, AK. On 13 October 1953 Citrus assisted the grounded APL-55 near the Dangerous River. From 30 June 1964 to 1979 Citrus was stationed at Kodiak, AK, and used for ATON. On 12 February 1965 she located two Russian FVs 3.4 mi from U.S. territory. Having notified them of their proximity to U.S. territory, they departed. On 8 March 1965 the cutter's crew fought a fire on MV Kalaikh off Alaska and towed the latter to Kodiak, AK. On 3 May 1965 Citrus medevaced a seaman from the Russian FV Churkzn at Kodiak Island. From 24 to 26 January 1968 the crew fought a fire on the Japanese MV Seifu Maru in Dutch Harbor, AK. On 9 August 1968 the distressed MV Dantzler was assisted and escorted from a grounding near Cook Inlet to Homer, AK. On 1 April 1969 the cutter medevaced a patient from FV Zulyo Maru off Alaska and on 8 May 1970 the cutter towed the disabled FV Shirley Rose to Kodiak, AK.
On 20 October 1970 the crew removed 31 from the grounded ferry Tustumena near Kodiak, AK. On 19 January 1974 Citrus searched for missing crew members from the trawler John and Olaf in the Gulf of Alaska. On 26 February 1979 the cutter struck a submerged object in the Ouzinki Narrows between Kodiak and Spruce Islands and sustained significant flooding. There were no personnel casualties, but from March 1979 to March 1982, Citrus underwent extensive repairs and was converted to a medium-endurance cutter (MEC) with the removal of her buoy tending equipment. Upon her return to duty in March 1982, Citrus was homeported at Coos Bay, OR where she was used primarily for LE and SAR.
On 1 January 1985 Citrus was rammed by the Panamanian MV Pacific Star 680 miles Southwest of San Diego, CA when crewmen from the cutter attempted to conduct a boarding to search for drugs. Pacific Star was scuttled by her crew. Seven crewmen were rescued and 3,800 lbs of marijuana was recovered and seized. In 1986, Citrus assisted CGC Resolute with the seizure of the M/V Panamco II more than 800 miles off the Oregon coast. The Panamco II was carrying a large shipment of Thai marijuana. In September 1990 Citrus enforced the safety zone around the R/V Aloha minimizing disruption of research activities.
Citrus was decommissioned on 1 September 1994. Throughout her 51 years of service, the ship was decorated with five Unit Commendations, four Meritorious Unit Commendations, two Arctic Service Medals, the American Defense Medal, World War II Victory Medal, the American Campaign Medal, the Asiatic-Pacific Medal, four National Defense Service Medals and the Humanitarian Service Medal.
LT CRAIG APR 1943-SEP 1943
LT A. H. SHEPARD SEP 1943-MAR 1944
LCDR R. "STORMY" BURNS MAR 1944-MAR 1953
LCDR D. A. MacLEAN MAR 1953-MAR 1955
LCDR C. H. JURGENS MAR 1955-JUN 1956
LCDR H. A. LINSE JUN 1956-JUN 1957
LCDR E. R. THARP JUN 1957-FEB 1959
LCDR W. H. ST. GEORGE FEB 1959-JAN 1961
LT R. E. GROVER, JR. JAN 1961-MAR 1961
LCDR C. R. HALLBERG MAR 1961-MAR 1963
LCDR A. E. NIXON MAR 1963-SEP 1964
CDR E. D. CASSIDY SEP 1964-JUN 1965
LCDR C. LEDDY JUN 1965-AUG 1967
LCDR W. J. BROGDON AUG 1967-JUN 1969
LCDR B. S. LITTLE JUN 1969-JUL 1971
LCDR MONTONYE JUL 1971-SEP 1972
LCDR K. A. LUCK SEP 1972-JUL 1975
LCDR D. D. BUMTNER JUL 1975-JUL 1977
LCDR T. M. O'CONNELL JUL 1977-MAY 1979
LCDR C. G. BOYER MAY 1979-JUL 1980
LCDR A. E WALKER JUL 1980-JUL 1982
LCDR T. W. ALLEN JUL 1982-JUN 1984
LCDR D. M. GIRAlTIS JUN 1984-JUL 1986
LCDR J. J. HATHAWAY JUL 1986-AUG 1988
LCDR M. A. EISHER AUG 1988-JUL 1990
CDR D. A. DiILIO JUL 1990-AUG 1991
LCDR A. J. BERNARD AUG 1991-JUN 1993
CDR T. R. LINDSTROM JUN 1993-SEP 1994
Cutter File, Coast Guard Historian's Office.
Dolan Research Inc. "Historical Context and Statement of Significance: USCGC Citrus (WMEC-300), August 1994. (Cutter File).
HABS/HAER, National Park Service, US Department of the Interior. US Coast Guard 180-Foot Buoy Tenders. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2003.
Robert Scheina. Coast Guard Cutters & Craft of World War II. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1981.
Robert Scheina. Coast Guard Cutters & Craft, 1946-1990. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1990.