The U.S. Coast Guard in World War II - Atlantic, Caribbean, and Greenland Theatre Campaigns

Historical Bibliography


Alexander, R.T. "Greenland Patrol." The Bulletin (Dec 1942), pp. 98-100.

Allen, E.C., Jr. "The Death of the Alexander Hamilton." The Bulletin (Mar 1946), pp. 388-394.

"America's Powder Keg! Coast Guard Cutters Maintain Protective Watch Over Our Greenland Neighbor to Prevent Violation of the Monroe Doctrine." Coast Guard Magazine 14 (May 1941), pp. 10, 46.

"An Unsung Hero [Maurice Jester]." Coast Guard Magazine (Aug, 1942), p. 23.  [Includes photo.]

"Arctic Victory." All Hands (Jan 1945), p. 17.

Beach, Edward L. "Down by Subs." Naval Institute Proceedings [???] (Apr 1991), pp. [???].

Belke, T.J. "’Roll of Drums.’" Naval Institute Proceedings 109 (Apr 1983), pp. 58-64.

"Bibb Receives Coat of Black War Paint." Coast Guard Magazine (Nov 1941), p. 40.

Bishop, Eleanor C. "The Campbell’s Path to Glory." Naval History (Spring 1993), pp. [???].

________. "’Hooligan’s Navy’: Coastal Pickets at War." Naval History (Summer 1992), pp. [???].

"The Blitz Continues. Coast Guard Continues to Smash U-boat Fleet." Coast Guard Magazine (Jul 1943), pp. 24-26.

Boyd, James, Jr. "Lookout." Atlantic CLXXXIV (Jul 1944), pp. 113-119.

"Brief War History of U.S. Coast Guard Cutters Transferred to U.K. and Renamed After Prominent British Coast Guard Stations." The Bulletin (Oct 1947), pp. 364-366.

"Britons Rescued [ from torpedoed ships ]." Coast Guard Magazine (Aug 1941), p. 78.

Brittingham, Arthur.  "Spring, 1942, WWII was Being Lost Off Cape Hatteras & Lookout as Nazi U-Boats Sank Dozens of Tankers."  Outer Banks Lighthouse Society Lighthouse News VI, No. 2 (Summer 2000), 4-5.

Brown, Raymond J. "Coast Guard Codebreakers Inspire Those Who Serves [ CG Unit 387 ]." Naval Institute Proceedings 124 (Dec 1998), pp. 34-36.

Browning, Robert M., Jr. "The Coast Guard in World War II--The Sinking of the Alexander Hamilton." Coast Guard (Jan 1992), pp. 18-19.

________. "Coast Guard Cutters Sink Two U-boats..." Commandant's Bulletin (May 1992), pp. 24-29.

________. "Escanaba." The Coast Guard Reservist (May-Jul 1993), pp. 16-18.

________. "The First U.S. Capture in World War II." Sea Power (Sep 1991), pp. 41-42.

________. "Torpedo Strikes Deadly Blow." Commandant's Bulletin (Jun 1993), pp. 17-19.

________., & Amy Gaskill. "A Festival of Remembrance [CGC Escanaba]." Sea Power (Dec 1996), pp. 39-41.

"Cameraman's Jackpot. Coast Guard Photographer [Jack January] Takes Photos of sinking of U-boat by Spencer." Coast Guard Magazine (Aug 1943), pp. 26-28, 30.

Capelotti, P.J. "Anti-Sub Patrols." Commandant's Bulletin (Jul 1992), pp. 20-21.

________. "Greenland Squadron Guarded Convoys..." Commandant's Bulletin (Jul 1992), pp. 22-23.

Christ, Charles J. "The U-Boat War in the Caribbean, 1942." Submarine Review (Oct 1985), pp. [???].

"Coast Guard Cutter ‘Muskeget’ Long Overdue is Presumed Lost." Coast Guard Bulletin II, 5 (Nov 1942), p. 47.

"Coast Guard Cutter Spencer Sinks Submarine While on Convoy." Coast Guard Bulletin II, 13 (Jul 1943), p. 153.

"The Coast Guard Cutter Spencer Sinks a U-Boat." Life (Jun 7, 1943), pp. 28-32.

"Coast Guard Destroys Nazi Foothold [Greenland]." Coast Guard Magazine (Feb 1945), pp. 26-27.

"Coast Guard in the Last Atlantic Sub Saga." Coast Guard Magazine (Aug 1945), p. 32.

"Coast Guard Sub-Busters Fight Winter." Coast Guard Magazine (Mar 1943), p. 32.

"The Coast Guard Versus Submarines." Life (May 25, 1942), pp. 30-33.

"Commanding the Important Greenland Patrol [E.H. Smith]." Coast Guard Magazine (Sep 1950), p. 20.

Conrad, Robert C. "How Two Cutters Went to Glory." Coast Guard Magazine (Oct 1943), pp. 18-19.

Cronenberg, Allen. "U-Boats in the Gulf: The Undersea War in 1942." Gulf Coast Historical Review (Spring 1990), pp. [???].

"The Cruise of the Campbell: A Photographic and Artistic Record by A.O. Fischer." Life (Jul 5, 1943), pp. 57-68.

"Cutter Campbell Sinks Axis Submarine; Depth Charges Five Others." Coast Guard Bulletin II, 10 (Apr 1943), p. 124.

"Cutter ‘Icarus’ Sinks Sub; 33 Members of Crew Taken Prisoner." Coast Guard Bulletin II, 12 (Jun 1943), p. 145.

"Cutter [Chelan] Sinks Two." Coast Guard Magazine (Nov 1942), p. 10.

"Cutters to Great Britain!" Coast Guard Magazine (May 1941), p. 49.

"Death of the 'Leopold.'" Coast Guard Magazine (Mar 1957), pp. 16-17.

"Death for Nazis!" Coast Guard Magazine (Oct 1942), p. 34.

Deac, Wilford P. "America’s Undeclared Naval War." Naval Institute Proceedings 87 (Oct 1961), pp. 70-79.

"Doomed Destroyer Escort [Menges] Back in Action After Miracle." Coast Guard Magazine (Aug 1945), p. 10.

Ehrman, William E. "A Bird's Eye View of World War Two (As Seen From Campbell's Crow's Nest)." The Bulletin 44, No. 1 (Jan/Feb 1982), pp. 31-35.

________. "Cruise of the Northland." Coast Guard Magazine 14 (Dec 1940), p. 40.

________. "Lost in the Graveyard of the Atlantic." The Bulletin (Sep-Oct 1978), pp. 32-37.

________. "One Less Beat on the Kettle Drums." The Bulletin (Sep/Oct 1985), pp. 34-37.

"Five Months on the Greenland Ice Cap." Coast Guard Magazine (May 1944), pp. 28-29.

Foster, Kevin. "America Defends Against U-Boats..." Commandant's Bulletin (Apr 1992), pp. 26-29.

________. "The Battle of the Atlantic." Commandant's Bulletin (Apr 1993), pp. 24-27.

________. "Cutters Enter British Royal Navy." Commandant's Bulletin (Nov 1991), p. 15.

________. "The Sinking of the CGC Acacia." Commandant's Bulletin (Apr 1992), p. 29.

Gibson, Charles Dana.  "The Crystal Project: How Yachtsmen, Polar Explorers, Scientists and Government Agencies Worked Together to Set Up Bases in the Subarctic to Get Fighter Planes to Britain in World War II."  Sea History  101  (Summer 2002), pp. 10-13.

"Greenland At War." 15 Life (Sep 6, 1943), pp. 76-78. [USCG artwork of Norman Thomas & Ben Wolfe].

"The Hamilton." The Bulletin (Aug 1942), pp. 47-48.

"Hamilton Crew Lauded: Officers and Crew Made Valiant Effort to Keep Vessel Afloat.  Wounded Saved by Gallantry of Shipmates Who Gave Up Positions in Lifeboats as Cutter Settled." Coast Guard Magazine (Apr 1942), pp. 8-9, 56.

Hansen, Kenneth P. "King, Canada, and the Convoys: A Reappraisal of Adm. Ernest King's Role in Operation Drumbeat.", in Maochun Miles Yu, ed., New Interpretations in Naval History: Selected Papers from the Fifteenth Naval History Symposium Held at the United States Naval Academy 20-22 September 2007 (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2009), pp. 57-80.

Hearn, Gerard A. "Five Months on the Greenland Ice Cap." Coast Guard Magazine (May 1944), pp. 28-29.

Hynd, Alan. "Six Subs in Twelve Hours." Coronet XIV (Jul 1943), p. 89.

"Increased Armament Placed Upon Vessels of the Coast Guard." Coast Guard Magazine (Feb 1941), p. 38.

Jacobsen, George P. "Small Cutters are Working Also." The Bulletin (Nov 1943), pp. 129-132.

Knapp, C.C. "The Surrender of the First German U-boat to an American Unit, the Coast Guard Destroyer-Escort U.S.S. Vance (DE-387)."The Bulletin (Jul 1945), pp. 116-118.

Kroll, C. Douglas. "Four Chaplains Go Down with the USS Dorchester." Commandant's Bulletin (Apr 1993), p. 27.

"Matching Wits with a U-boat [CGC Icarus]." Coast Guard Magazine (Jun 1943), pp. 16-17.

McWhorter, Ralph. "Remembering Sailors of Royal Navy Patrol Service." Commandant's Bulletin (Jul 1992), pp. 34-35.

"In Memory of the Escanaba." Coast Guard Magazine (Oct 1943), p. 36.

"Navigator." [pseud.] "Battlefront on the Arctic: Coast Guard Ships and Men of the Greenland Patrol." Christian Science Magazine (Dec 18, 1943), pp. 6-7.

"Navy Cross Awarded Cutter Commander Who Sank Enemy Submarine." Coast Guard Bulletin II, 14 (Aug 1943), p. 165.

"Nazi Greenland Ventures Foiled." The Bulletin (Feb 1945), pp. 255-258.

Noble, Dennis L. "CGC Spencer Rams, Sinks Nazi U-boat." Commandant's Bulletin (Apr 1993), pp. 28-30.

________., & Truman R. Strobridge. "Deep Sea Duel." Sea Combat 1 (Dec 1978), pp. 56-57.

________. "Winter of Decision." National Defense 68 (Feb 1984), pp. 47-50; (Mar,l 1984), pp. 57-63.

"Northland Destroys Nazi Base Off Greenland." The Bulletin (Dec 1943), pp. 151-152.

O'Brien, Joseph. "The Loss of the Leopold." Coast Guard Magazine (Jun 1944), pp. 14, 16.

Price, Scott T. "Battle in the Mediterranean." Coast Guard (Jul 1994), pp. 24-29.

________. "Final Voyage." Commandant's Bulletin (Apr 1994), pp. 19-21.

________. "Masters of the Ice: The Capture of the Externsteine." Sea Classics (Jul 1995), pp. 44-51, 61-62.

________. "Sinking the U-550." Commandant's Bulletin (May 1994), pp. 34-35.

________. "Survivors." Commandant's Bulletin (Aug 1994), pp. 34-35.

________. "Coast Guard Versus the Nazis." Commandant's Bulletin (Dec 1994), pp. 19-23.

________. "The CG's Final Act: USS Moberly Versus the U-853." Commandant's Bulletin (May 1995), pp. 29-30.

________. "The Real Thing! Coast Guard Destroyer Escorts Battled German U-boats to the Death." Sea Classics 28 (Jan 1995), pp. 16-23, 72-74.

Raper, Julian A. "The Campbell's Eventful Cruise." The Bulletin (May 1943), pp. 21-24.

Reedy, James R., Jr. "Coast Guard Sinking of U-352." World War II Magazine (May 1996), pp. 26-32.

"Remember the Escanaba." The Bulletin (May-Jun 1963), pp. 42-43.

Renshaw, L.W.A. "Just a Coast Guard P.C. Boat."T he Bulletin (Dec 1943), pp. 145-146.

"Rescue of Crew [of S.S. Mallory] by Cutter Bibb..." Coast Guard Magazine (Dec 1947), pp. 15-16.

Sadowski, Brodie. "Last Survivor [Raymond O’Malley, USCGC Escanaba]." Coast Guard  (Aug 1998), pp. 24-27.

Sargent, T.R. and B.M. Chiswell. "'Ve Vas Dere, Charlie,' or the Saga of the CGC Modoc's Encounter With the German Battleship Bismarck." The Bulletin 42 (Mar-Apr 1980), pp. 24-25.

Scheina, Robert L. "Coast Guard Operations in Greenland, 1940-41." The Bulletin (Mar-Apr 1981), pp. 26-29.

________. "Coast Guard Operations in Greenland, 1941-45." The Bulletin (Jul-Aug 1981), pp. 18-23.

"Service Manned Destroyer Escort [Leopold] Sunk." Coast Guard Bulletin II, 23 (May 1944), p. 277.

"She Lived to Fight Again [Menges]." Coast Guard Magazine (Oct 1953), pp. 16-20.

"'Shoot on Sight!'...Coast Guard Cutters...Face Threat of Nazi U-boat Attack." Coast Guard Magazine (Dec 1941), pp. 14-19.

"Spencer and Duane vs. German U-Boat: What Really Happened?" The Bulletin (Mar-Apr 1981), pp. 33-34.

"Scratch One Hearse." The Bulletin (Jul 1943), pp. 57-59.

"Scratch One Hearse!" The Bulletin Centennial Issue (1976), p. 41.

Sheridan, Martin. "Lifting the Veil of Censorship in Greenland." Travel LXXXIII (Oct 1944), pp. 12-15.

Skinner, Carlton. "Arctic Navigation." Yachting LXXIII (May 1943), pp. 28-29, 90.

Stewart, Alexander. "Convoy HX-166."The Bulletin (Sep-Oct 1977), pp. 16-21.

"Sub Busters In Action!" Coast Guard Magazine (Oct 1942), p. 39.

"Sub Busters! Small Coast Guard Craft Taking Heavy Toll of Nazi Submarines in Atlantic Waters." Coast Guard Magazine (Sep 1942), pp. 10, 12, 14.

Syrett, David. "German U-Boat Attacks on Convoy SC 118: 4 Feb to 14 Feb 1943." The American Neptune XLIV, No. 1 (Winter 1984), pp. 48-60.

Thomas, Charles W. "'Capture at Sea in Perspective [Externsteine]." Naval Institute Proceedings 91 (Aug 1965), pp. 108-109.

Tidwell, Mike. "[Sea Cloud] 'The Best Democracy I've Known,' It Existed Aboard a Millionaire's Yacht Converted for Service in World War II, An Experiment in Integrating the Military."  American Legacy (Summer 2000), pp. 30-40.

Tollaksen, D.M. "Last Chapter for U-853." Naval Institute Proceedings 86 (Dec 1960), pp. 82-89.

"Tragedy [USCGC Escanaba]."The Bulletin (Jul 1943), p.71.

"Tragedy Strikes Again [USS Leopold, DE-319]."The Bulletin (Apr 1944), p. 15.

Turbak, Gary. "Untold Rescue [SS Dorchester sinking]." VFW Magazine (Feb 1999), pp. 42-43.

"Twelve Hours of Glory...[Campbell] Shattering Submarine Wolf Pack." Coast Guard Magazine (May 1943), pp. 12-14.

"U.S. Uses First Force to Win Bloodless Victory in the Battle of the Atlantic." Life (Apr 14, 1941), pp. 23-27.

"U.S.S. Leopold (DE-319)." Coast Guard Magazine (Jun 1952), p. 37.

"U-boat Sunk by Cutter [ CGC Icarus ] off Carolina Coast, 1942." Coast Guard Magazine (Jan 1954), p. 30.

Walling, Michael G. "Bloodstained Sea: The U.S. Coast Guard in the Battle of the Atlantic, 1941 - 1944." Wreck & Rescue 7, No. 2 (Aug 2004), pp. 14-19.

Waters, John M., Jr. "Holiday Routine." The Bulletin (Sep-Oct 1966), pp. 319-333.

White, Richard D., Jr. "The Acacia and Ajax Achilles." The Bulletin (Mar-Apr 1976), pp. 38-42.

"The Wholesale Seizure of [ Axis ] Vessels Clears the Decks for a Showdown." Newsweek (Apr 7, 1941), pp. 15-17.

Wiggins, Melanie. "Almost Warships: Short of Men and Ships in the Early Days of World War II, the United States Turned to Civilians and Their Watercraft as the First Line of Defense Against German Submarines [Corsair Fleet's Grey Mist, CG-46034]." Naval History (Dec 2006), pp. 60-64.

Wilcox, Richard. "Sinbad." Life (Jul 19, 1943), pp. 14-16.

Zollars, Chris E. "Hide and Seek: The Modoc Witnesses the Fight Between the Royal Navy and the Bismark Up Close..." Commandant's Bulletin (Jun 1991), p. 23.

Books and Government Publications

Abbazia, Patrick. Mr. Roosevelt’s Navy: The Private War of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet 1939-1942. Annapolis: NIP, 1975.

Bailey, Thomas A., & Paul B. Ryan. Hitler vs. Roosevelt, The Undeclared Naval War. New York: Free Press, 1979.

Balchen, Bernt, Corey Ford, & Oliver La Farge. War Below Zero: The Battle for Greenland. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1944.

Blair, Clay. Hitler’s U-boat War: The Hunters, 1939-1942. New York: Random House, 1996.

Bocock, Arthur. Red Flannels and Green Ice. New York: Random House, 1949.

Buell, Thomas B. Master of Seapower: A Biography of Fleet Admiral Ernest J. King. Boston: Little, Brown & Company, 1980.

Carr, Roland T. To Sea in Haste. Washington: Acropolis Books, Ltd., 1975.

Cremer, Peter. U-boat Commander. Annapolis: NIP, 1984.

Edwards, Bernard. Donitz and the Wolf Packs. London: Arms and Armour Press, 1996.

Fehrenbach, T.R. F.D.R.’s Undeclared War 1939 to 1941. New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1967.

Gainard, Joseph A. Yankee Skipper: The Life Story of Joseph A. Gainard, Captain of the City of Flint. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company, 1940.

Galecki, Bryan.  Rum Runners, U-Boats & Hurricanes: The Complete History of the Coast Guard Cutters Bedloe and Jackson.  Wilmington, NC: Pine Belt Publishing, 2005.

Gannon, Michael. Black May. New York: Harper Collins, 1998.

________. Operation Drumbeat. New York: Harper & Row, 1990.

Glines, Carroll V. Bernt Balchen: Polar Aviator. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1999. [Greenland Patrol]

Heinrichs, Waldo. Threshold of War: Franklin D. Roosevelt & American Entry Into World War II. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Hessler, Gunter. The U-Boat War in the Atlantic, 1939-1945. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1989.

Hickam, Homer H., Jr. Torpedo Junction, U-Boat War off America's East Coast 1942. Annapolis: NIP, 1989.

Howarth, Stephen, & Derek Law, eds. The Battle of the Atlantic, 1939-1945. Annapolis: NIP, 1994.

Hoyt, Edwin P. The Sea Wolves. New York: Avon Books, 1987.

________. U-Boats Offshore. New York: Stein & Day, 1978.

Hughes, Terry and John Costello. The Battle of the Atlantic. New York: Dial Press, 1977.

Karig, Walter, Earl Burton, & Stephen L. Freeland. Battle Report: The Atlantic War. Volume II. New York: Farrar & Rinehart, Inc., 1946.

Kelshall, Gaylord T.M. The U-Boat War in the Caribbean. Annapolis: NIP, 1994.

King, Ernest, & Walter M. Whitehall. Fleet Admiral King: A Naval Record. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1952.

Langer, William., & S. Gleason. The Undeclared War 1940-1941. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1953.

Mason, John T. The Atlantic War Remembered. Annapolis: NIP, 1990.

Middlebrook, Martin. Convoy. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1977.

Molloy, Anne G. Coast Guard to Greenland. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1942.

Nash, Edgar. The Court-Martial of Ensign Mason.  Modesto, CA: by the author, 2001.

Pocock, Arthur. Red Flannels and Green Ice. New York: Random House, Inc., 1949.

Price, Scott T. The Coast Guard and the North Atlantic Campaign. Washington: U.S. Coast Guard Historian's Office, 1994.

Rawlings, Charles. We Saw the Battle of the Atlantic: Diana, of Periscope Lane, Torpedo Junction, Hatteras Way. New York: Pickwick Ltd., 1942.

Reed, Ken: The Hand-me-down Ships. The Author, 1994.

Rohwer, Jurgen. The Critical Convoy Battles of Mar 1943. Annapolis: NIP, 1977.

________. Die U-Boot-Erfolge Der Achsenmachte 1939-1945. Munich: J.F. Lehmanns Verlag, 1968. English language edition entitled Axis Submarine Successes, 1939-1945. Annapolis: NIP, 1983.

Roscoe, Theodore. United States Destroyer Operations in World War II. Annapolis: NIP, 1953.

Royal Navy. Admiralty. The Battle of the Atlantic. The Official Account of the Fight Against the U-boats 1939-1945. London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1946.

Runyan, Timothy J. and Jan M. Copes, eds. To Die Gallantly, The Battle of the Atlantic. Boulder: Westview Press, 1994.

Steinberg, Maurice.  A Sailor at War on the Greenland Patrol - WWII. Random House / Xlibris, 2003.

Syrett, David. The Defeat of the German U-Boats:The Battle of the Atlantic.. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1994.

Tarrant, V.E. The U-Boat Offensive: 1914-1945. Annapolis: NIP, 1989.

Taylor, Theodore. Fire on the Beaches. New York: Norton, 1958.

Thomas, Charles W. Ice Is Where You Find It. New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., 1951.

Tilley, John A. The Coast Guard & The Greenland Patrol. Washington: U.S. Coast Guard, 1992.

United States Coast Guard. Operations Division. Research and Statistics Section. The Accomplishments of Ten Coast Guard Cutters Transferred to the United Kingdom. Washington: U.S. Coast Guard, n.d. [1941?]

________.________.________. Sinking of the Hamilton. Washington: U.S. Coast Guard, 1942.

________.________.________. The Taking of Italian, German, & Danish Merchant Vessels in Ports of the United States in Protective Custody by the United States Coast Guard. Washington: U.S. Coast Guard, 1942.

United States Navy Department. Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Fleet. Commander, Greenland Patrol. Vol. III, 1946. U.S. Naval Administration in World War II, vol. 140. [Located in the Rare Book Room, Navy Department Library, Naval Historical Center].

________.________. An Administrative History of Destroyers, Atlantic Fleet. Vol. VI, 1946. U.S. Naval Administration in World War II, vol. 141. [Located in the Rare Book Room, Navy Department Library, Naval Historical Center].

________. Commander, Caribbean Sea Frontier. An Administrative History of the Caribbean Sea Frontier to VJ-Day." 1945. U.S. Naval Administration in World War II, vol. 160. [Located in the Rare Book Room, Navy Department Library, Naval Historical Center].

________.________. An Administrative History of the U.S. Naval Operating Base Trinidad, B.W.I., & the Trinidad Sector of the Caribbean Sea Frontier, 7 Dec 1941 to Aug 1945, n.d. U.S. Naval Administration in World War II, vol. 166. [Located in the Rare Book Room, Navy Department Library, Naval Historical Center].

________.________. The Guantanamo Sector, Caribbean Sea Frontier and the U.S. Naval Operating Base, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, 1945. 2 vols. U.S. Naval Administration in World War II, vol. 165. [Located in the Rare Book Room, Navy Department Library, Naval Historical Center].

________. Commander, Eastern Sea Frontier. History of the Eastern Sea Frontier, (Organizational and Operational), n.d. U.S. Naval Administration in World War II, vol. 161. [Located in the Rare Book Room, Navy Department Library, Naval Historical Center].

________. Commander, Gulf Sea Frontier. History of the Gulf Sea Frontier, 6 Feb 1942-14 Aug 1945, 1946 U.S. Naval Administration in World War II, vol. 162. [Located in the Rare Book Room, Navy Department Library, Naval Historical Center].

________. Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. Naval History Division. United States Submarine Losses, World War II. Washington: GPO, 1963.

Van der Vat, Dan. The Atlantic Campaign: World War II's Great Struggle at Sea. New York: Harper & Row, 1988.

Walling, Michael.  Bloodstained Sea: The U.S. Coast Guard in the Battle of the Atlantic, 1941-1944. International Marine/Ragged Mountain Press, 2004.

Walton, William. Scratch One Hearse. New York: Time Magazine, 1944.

Waters, John M., Jr. Bloody Winter. Princeton: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1967; reprint, Annapolis: NIP, 1984.

Wiggins, Melanie. Torpedoes in the Gulf, Galveston, and the U-Boats, 1942-1943. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 1995.

Williams, Kathleen. Secret Weapon: U.S. High-Frequency Direction Finding in the Battle of the Atlantic. Annapolis: NIP, 1996.