Minorities and the U.S. Coast Guard

Historical Bibliography


Albertson, Robert. "Native American Heritage: Station Neah Bay Breaks Ethnic Barriers at the Turn of the Century." Commandant's Bulletin (Nov 1995), pp. 26-27.

Arbogast, Kenn. "Building Tomorrow's Service: An Interview with Personnel's Special Projects Officer [Edward R. Williams] About Minority Recruiting, Retention..." Commandant's Bulletin (Jan 1990), pp. 12-19.

Benson, Rodney J. "Romance and Story of Pea Island Station: The History of the Coast Guard's Only All-Colored Life Saving Crew Which Has Performed Fine Service on Coast." U. S. Coast Guard Magazine Vol. 6 (November, 1932), p. 52.

Boyd, Clarence. "A Negro Speaks [never encountered discrimination in Coast Guard]." Coast Guard Magazine (Jul 1946), p. 3.

Cihelka, Carolyn. "Hispanic Ties." Commandant's Bulletin (Sep 1993), pp. 17-18.

"Civil Rights Policy Statement [Department of Transportation - DOT]." Commandant's Bulletin (Jan 28 1980), p. 7.

Clark, Wendy. "The Heroes of Cape Hatteras [Pea Island]." National Parks 71, No. 1-2 (Jan/Feb 1997), pp. 26-29.

Davis, John W. "The Negro in the United States Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard." The Journal of Negro Education Vol. 12, No. 3 (Summer, 1943), pp. 345-349.

Davis, Russell L. "Turn Lemons Into Lemonade: A Blueprint for Survival [CAPT Bobby Wilks]." Commandant's Bulletin #7-82 (Mar 1 1982), pp. 8-9.

Douville, Bob & John Shkor.  "Blacks and the Coast Guard Academy."  Navy Times  (Jul 22 1970), pp. 1, 10.

________.  "Blacks and the CGd [sic] Academy III: Incidents Do Occur, But No Overt Racism."  Navy Times (Aug 5 1970), p. 10.

"Enlisted Man Brings Charges of Racial Discrimination." Coast Guard Magazine (Mar 1954), pp. 2-3.

Epperson, W. Scott. "Alex Haley Crosses the Bar." Commandant's Bulletin (Apr 1992), pp. 2-5.

Ferrier, Donna L. "Cutter Named for Alex Haley." Officer Review 39, No. 3 (Oct 1999), p. 17.

"Filipino Enlistments."  Coast Guard Magazine (Jan 1930), p. 9.

"Getting His Due: CG Hero [SA William Flores of the Blackthorn] Receives Honor [Coast Guard Medal] Posthumously." Coast Guard (Dec 2000), pp. 30-33.

Gracie, James S. "Black History and the Coast Guard." Commandant's Bulletin (Feb 14 1986), p. 1.

Graham, James. "Voices From Our Past [Pea Island]." Commandant's Bulletin (Feb 1991), pp. 22-25.

"’Hell-Roaring Mike [Healy].’" Sea Power (Oct 1997), p. 46.

"Hell Roarin' Mike [Healy]." Alabama Seaport (Feb 2001), pp. 26-29.

Hill, Martin.  "Heroes of the Outer Banks [Pea Island]." The Retired Officer LIII, Vol. 8 (Aug 1997), pp. 28-32.

"Hombre Aqui Combate!!! [Pete Aguinaldo, the Filipino boxer nicknamed "The Insurrection," stationed on the CG Destroyer Trippe]." Coast Guard Magazine (Feb 1928), p. 39.

"Jacob Lawrence," Bulletin of the Museum of Modern Art, 12 No. 2 (November, 1944).

Johnson, Paul H. "Portrait of Captain Michael A. Healy, Part II." Coast Guard Academy Alumni Association The Bulletin (Mar-Apr 1979), pp. 22-23, 26-27; "Part III," (May-Jun 1979), pp. 26-30.

Lancaster, Charles. "CAPT Michael Healy 1839-1904." Commandant's Bulletin (Jul 1996), p. 5.

Langley, Harold D. "The Negro in the Navy and Merchant Service 1798-1860." Journal of Negro History 52 (Oct 1967), pp. 273-286.

Louchheim, Aline B. "[Jacob] Lawrence: Quiet Spokesman." Art News 43, No. 13 (October 15-31, 1944).

Maddry, Lawrence. "The Black Men of the Coast Guard's Pea Island Station." Virginia-Pilot (Sep 1, 1974), p. C5.

Magsumbol, Ramon. "We, Filipino Coast Guardsmen." Coast Guard Magazine (Nov 1955), pp. 5, 21.

May, Stephen. "'Wonderful Duty' [Artist Jacob Lawrence]." Naval History (Jan/Feb 1998), pp. 28-32.

McCausland, Elizabeth. "Jacob Lawrence," Magazine of Art 38, No. 7 (November, 1945), pp. 251-254.

Moreth, Ed. "Asian-Pacific Islanders." Commandant's Bulletin (May 1995), pp. 24-25.

Murphy, John F. "Portrait of Captain Michael A. Healy." Coast Guard Academy Alumni Association The Bulletin (Jan-Feb 1979), pp. 14-18.

________. "Two Standards of Judgment [Michael Healy]." Coast Guard Academy Alumni Association The Bulletin (Sep-Oct 1965), pp. 366-375.

"New York Newsmen Pay Glowing Tribute to Coast Guard's Only Chief Journalist [Alex Haley]." Coast Guard Magazine (Mar 1950), p. 34.

Noble, Dennis L. "Hell Roaring Mike [Healy]." Chief II (Mar 1976), pp. 11-13.

________. "The Makah Influence: Native Americans in the Early Coast Guard." Commandant's Bulletin (Nov 1996), pp. 18-19.

________., & Truman R. Strobridge. "'Hell Roaring Mike' On Trial." Naval History (Apr 2001), pp. 34-39.

O'Brien, T. Michael. "Black Heroes of Pea Island: Part I." Commandant's Bulletin (4 Feb 1980), pp. 5-7. 

________. "Part II," Commandant's Bulletin (11 Feb 1980), pp. 5-7.

________. "Part III," Commandant's Bulletin (18 Feb 1980), pp. 5-7.

________. "Black Lifesavers: A Brief Historical Survey of Blacks and the U.S. Lifesaving Service," chap. in U.S. Department of Transportation, Coast Guard, Seldom Told Tales: Sketches of Blacks in the Coast Guard. Washington: U.S. Coast Guard, n.d.

Odom, Curtis. "A Historical Sketch of Blacks in the Coast Guard." Commandant's Bulletin (Feb 9 1981), pp. 8-11.

"Officers of Former Philippine Army Commissioned in U.S. Coast Guard." Coast Guard Bulletin II, 6 (Dec 1942), pp. 62-63.

O’Toole, James M. "Racial Identity and the Case of Captain Michael Healy, USRCS." Prologue Vol. 29, No. 3 (Fall 1997), pp. 190-201.

Ott, John. "Battle Station MoMA: Jacob Lawrence and the Desegregation of the Armed Forces and the Art World." American Art Vol. 29, No. 3 (Fall, 2015), pp. 58-89.

Padilla, Jose. "A Slice of Filipino History." Commandant's Bulletin (May 1995), pp. 34-35.

Patton, Vince. "SM2 Alphonzo Barbour 100-Year-Old [CG] Veteran [African-American messman who served from 1924 to 1941]." Commandant's Bulletin (Sep 1992), pp. 18-20.

Peterson, William D. "African Americans in the U.S. Life-Saving Service." Wreck & Rescue No. 4 (Spring 1997), pp. 6-9.

Reilly, Bob. "Ensign Merlee J. Smith, Jr." Negro Heritage VI (1966), pp. 2-3.

Richardson, William. "Minority Issues Revisited." Commandant's Bulletin (Aug 1989), p. 33.

"Roots [Alex Haley]." Coast Guard Academy Alumni Association The Bulletin (May-Jun 1977), pp. 27-28.

Scheina, Robert L. "Blacks in the Coast Guard: A Chronicle of Lifesaving." Commandant's Bulletin (Jan 1989), pp. 22-23, 28.

Strobridge, Truman R. "Blacks and Lights." Shipmates III (Summer 1975), pp. 14-17, 31.

________., and Joseph Greco, Jr. "Black Trailblazer [Clarence Samuels] Has Colorful Past." Fifth Dimension (3rd Quarter 1973), pp. 30-32.

________.________. ________. Commandant's Bulletin (Feb 14 1975), pp. 11-12.

________., & Michael T. O'Brien. "Blacks and Cutters." United States Coast Guard Chief Petty Officers Association The Chief II (June-July 1976), pp. 13-16, 31.

Swift, Ed. "A Golden Moment: Pea Island Crew Honored for 1896 Rescue." Commandant's Bulletin (May 1996), p. 5.

Terrill, Brad. "Recruiting Targets: Coast Guard Seeks Higher Representation..." Commandant's Bulletin (Jun 1992), pp. 34-35.

Thiesen, William H. "Joseph Tezanos, Paul Perez & John Martinez: Coast Guard Officers and Pioneers of Ethnic Diversity at the Coast Guard Academy." Coast Guard Academy Alumni Association The Bulletin 71, No. 5 (Oct 2009), pp. 340-348.

Thomson, Robin J. "Alex Haley's Life and Legacy." Commandant's Bulletin (Apr 1992), p. 4.

Tidwell, Mike. "[USS Sea Cloud, CG] 'The Best Democracy I've Known,' It Existed Aboard a Millionaire's Yacht Converted for Service in World War II, An Experiment in Integrating the Military."  American Legacy (Summer 2000), pp. 30-40.

Tilghman, Timothy.  "Celebrating Alex Haley's Legacy." Coast Guard Academy Alumni Association  The Bulletin (Feb 1998), pp. 26-27.

Weatherford, Carole Boston. "The Black Lifesavers [Pea Island LSS]." American Legacy (Summer 1999), pp. 60-68.

Webster, W. Russell. "Hell-Roaring Mike's a Hero." Naval Institute Proceedings 125 (Jul 1999), pp. 68-71.

Wells, Ronald A. "Alex Haley: A Reminiscence." Coast Guard Academy Alumni Association The Bulletin (Apr 1992), pp. 6-7.

Wells, William R. "'A Blot Against Their Good Name.'" 2010 (Coast Guard Warriors: Part of the Mix website) 

________.  "Initiative Creates Opportunity [Alex Haley]." Naval History (Jul/Aug 1999), pp. 46-48.

Wilkerson, Sharon E. "Native American Heritage." Commandant's Bulletin (Nov 1995), pp. 26-27.

________. "Samuel Amalu [Hawaiian Lighthouse keeper]." Commandant's Bulletin (May 1996), p. 21.

________. "Seizing Opportunities: The Story of Olivia Hooker." Commandant's Bulletin (Feb 1996), pp. 16-17.

Williams, John E. "Black Leadership: For Change or for Status Quo?" Coast Guard Academy Alumni Association The Bulletin (Jan/Feb 1979), pp. 40-43.

________. "The U.S. Coast Guard: A Portrait in Gray." The Crisis 85, No. 3 (1978), pp. 96-99.

Williams, Rudi. "Researcher Says That Pea Island Provides a Rare Maritime Role Model for Young Blacks." Commandant's Bulletin (Feb 1992), pp. 18-19.

Zittel, K.O.A. "Black Maria and the Early Coast Guard." Coast Guard Academy Alumni Association The Bulletin (Nov-Dec 1965), p. 432.

Books and Government Publications

Bryant, Nicholas. The Bystander: John F. Kennedy and the Struggle for Black Equality. New York: Basic Books, 2006.

Carbone, Elisa.  Storm Warriors [Pea Island Life-Saving Crew].  New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2001.

Greene, Robert E. Black Defenders of America, 1775-1973. Chicago: Johnson Publishing Co., 1974.

Hills, Patricia. Painting Harlem Modern: The Art of Jacob Lawrence. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009.

Knoblock, Glenn A. African American World War II Casualties and Decorations in the Navy, Coast Guard and Merchant Marine - A Comprehensive Record. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 2009.

MacGregor, Morris J., Jr. Integration of the Armed Forces 1940-1965. Defense Studies Series. Washington: GPO, 1981.

________ & Bernard C. Nalty. Blacks in the Military Essential Documents. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources Inc., 1981.

Mershon, Sherie & Steven L. Schlossman. Foxholes and Color Lines: Desegregating the U.S. Armed Forces. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.

Nalty, Bernard C. Long Passage to Korea: Black Sailors and the Integration of the U.S. Navy. Washington, DC: Naval Historical Center, 2003. [Volume in The U.S. Navy and the Korean War series edited by Edward J. Marolda.]

________. Strength for the Fight: A History of Black Americans in the Military. New York: The Free Press, 1986.

________ & Morris J. MacGregor, Jr. Blacks in the Military Essential Documents. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources Inc., 1981.

Nelson, Dennis D. The Integration of the Negro into the U.S. Navy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Young, 1951.

O'Toole, James M.  Passing for White: Race, Religion, and the Healy Family, 1820-1920.  Boston: University of Massachusetts Press, 2002.

Strobridge, Truman R. Blacks and Lights: A Brief Historical Survey of Blacks and the Old U.S. Lighthouse Service. Washington: U.S. Coast Guard Historians Office 1975.

Stover, Douglas.  Pea Island Life-Saving Station: Coast Guard Station #177: Historic Resource Study.  Cape Hatteras National Seashore: National Park Service, 2008.

Townsend, Linda E. & Dupree Davenport. The History of Blacks in the Coast Guard From 1790. Washington, DC: USCG, no date (1976?).

United States Coast Guard. African Americans in the United States Coast Guard Historic Role Models 1790-1993. Washington, DC: USCG, 1993.

United States Congress. House.  Permitting Filipinos to Become Members of Coast Guard Auxiliary and Coast Guard Reserve. H. Rp. 2491, 77th Cong., 2nd sess., 1942, Serial 10664.

________.________. Permitting Filipinos to Become Members of Coast Guard Auxiliary and Coast Guard Reserve. S. Rp. 1636, 77th Cong., 2nd sess., 1942, Serial 10659.

United States Department of Transportation. Coast Guard. Seldom Told Tales: Sketches of Blacks in the Coast Guard. Washington, D.C: U.S. Coast Guard, n.d.

Weatherford, Carole Boston.  Sink or Swim: Black Lifesavers of the Outer Banks.   Coastal Carolina Press, 1999.

Wheat, Ellen Harkins. Jacob Lawrence, American Painter. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1986.

Wilson, Ruth Danenhower. Jim Crow Joins Up: A Study of Negroes in the Armed Forces of the United States (Revised Edition).  New York: Press of William J. Clark, 1944. [War Edition - Produced in accordance with conservation orders of the War Production Board, second printing, 1945.]

Wright, David & David Zoby.  Fire on the Beach: Recovering the Lost Story of Richard Etheridge and the Pea Island Lifesavers.  New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001.

Dissertations, Theses, and Unpublished Papers

Nelson, Dennis D. "The Integration of the Negro into the United States Navy, 1776-1947." Master of Arts thesis, Howard University, 1948.

Williams, Gerald O. "Michael J. [A.] Healy and the Alaska Maritime Frontier 1880-1902." Master of Arts thesis. 2 volumes. Eugene: University of Oregon, 1987.