A Native American people formerly inhabiting the eastern Finger Lakes region of west-central New York, with present-day populations in this same area and in southeast Ontario. The Onondaga are one of the original members of the Iroquois confederacy.
Builder: Defoe Works, Bay City, Michigan
Commissioned: 11 September 1934
Decommissioned: 24 July 1947
Displacement: 1,005 tons
Main Engines: 1 x DeLaval double-reduction geared turbine; 1,500 shp
Main Boilers: 2 x Babcock & Wilcox; 310 psi, 200°F superheat
Propellers: 1 x four-bladed
Maximum Speed: 12.8 knots; 1,350 mile range
Economic: 9.4 knots; 5,079 mile range
Fuel Oil: 41,500 gallons
Complement: 6 officers, 56 men (1934)
1934: 2 x 3"/50; 2 x 6-pounders
1942: 2 x 3"/50; 2 x 20mm/80 (single mount); 2 x depth charge tracks; 4 x "Y" guns; 2 mousetraps.
Sonar: QCJ-3 (1945)
The 165-foot "A" class cutters were based on the 1915 Tallapoosa/Ossipee design. They were designed for light ice-breaking as well, and were constructed with a reinforced belt at the waterline and a cutaway forefoot. They could break up to two feet of ice. They were also the first cutters with geared turbine drives. They were constructed utilizing Public Works Administration construction allotments, a program established to aid the country after the onset of the Great Depression. Other cutters in the 165-foot (A) class cutters were: Algonquin (WPG-75); Comanche (WPG-76); Escanaba (WPG-77); Mohawk (WPG-78); and Tahoma (WPG-80).
Click here to access an article written in 1935 that describes, in great detail, a 165-foot "A" Class cutter and her crew. The author, D. E. ("Gim") Hobelman, was given free access to the Escanaba and he describes her from stem to stern. His comments are equally applicable to the other cutters in Escanaba's class.
The second cutter to carry the name Onondaga was launched on 2 August 1934 by the Defoe Works in Bay City, Michigan. She was commissioned on 11 September 1934 and was first stationed at Astoria, Oregon. She transferred to Ketchikan, Alaska in 1941. She was attacked by Imperial Japanese Navy aircraft on 3 June 1942 at Dutch Harbor, Alaska, but there were no casualties.
She was decommissioned on 24 July 1947 and was sold on 7 December 1954.
OFFICIAL WORLD WAR II HISTORY:
The CGC ONONDAGA was built at Bay City, Michigan, in 1934, and her permanent station thereafter until 1941 was Astoria, Oregon. She is a geared turbine oil burner of 1500 horsepower with steel hull, 165 feet long overall, with a 36 ft. molded beam and maximum draft of 13 ft. 7 in. Her displacement is 1005 tons and her gross tonnage 718 CH.
From her commissioning in 1934 to 1941, the ONONDAGA was stationed at Astoria, Oregon, where she performed important law enforcement duties and rendered much assistance to vessels in distress. Every year she was assigned to patrol the pelagic seals on their annual migration to the Pribilof Islands and to prevent halibut fishing out of season.
Assigned to general escort duty in the area of Women’s Bay and Kodiak, she was later assigned to escort duty between Cape Spencer and Dutch Harbor and antiaircraft and escort patrol off Dutch Harbor. On January 16, 1942, she assisted in rescuing 48 men from the SS MAPELE in distress of f Cape Divine. She resumed escort duty between Dutch Harbor and Juneau. On March 14, 1942, she conducted a sound sweep with the CGC ATALANTA.
Soon after Pearl Harbor, the ONONDAGA was assigned to Dutch Harbor, Alaska. When the first reports of the Hawaii attack reached Alaska, Major General Simon R. Buckner, head of the Alaska Defense Command, ordered a constant alert and a total blackout was effected. Vigilant naval patrols were continually maintained in southern Alaska and the Alaskan peninsula, where by June, 1942, two important secret air fields had already been established. Navy PBYs a had been patrolling the Aleutian waters for about two months prior to Pearl Harbor and early in December, 1941, began patrols under full combat operation.
DUTCH HARBOR ATTACK
Early on the morning of 3 June, 1942, a handful of Japanese fighter and bomber planes appeared out of the Aleutian fog. Late on the day before, one of our patrol planes had sighted an unidentified surface force 1400 miles south of Kiska, proceeding eastward. At the same time that the Japanese task force was approaching Midway another force had been sent out to the Aleutians. Japanese submarines had been reported in the vicinity of Umnak and Unalaska. Just before dawn on the morning of the 3rd a squadron of possible Japanese planes was reported cruising low over Dutch Harbor. They were soon definitely identified as Japanese by their wing markings and shore and ship batteries opened fire a few minutes before the first bomb fell. The attack was of short duration; a few barracks and warehouse were set on fire and a Navy patrol plane strafed. Only two PBY’s were lost, while several enemy aircraft were shot down. Fewer than 40 enemy planes were estimated to have engaged in the attack, which seemed designed primarily for reconnaissance purposes, to survey the strength of the base before the main attack was launched. This strength was not great. The base, still under construction, was garrisoned by a couple of regiments of troops and a few marines. The ONONDAGA was in the harbor, together with three destroyers, a minesweeper, an Army transport, and an old station ship, the NORTHWESTERN. The ONONDAGA was moored at the south buoy in the harbor and sighted the enemy at 0540 before the air station was attacked. General quarters was sounded, battle stations manned, and all batteries put in action within a few seconds. During the brief period the Japanese planes were within range, the ONONDAGA fired 115 rounds of 3"-23 caliber, 1400 rounds of .50 caliber, and 500 rounds of .30 caliber ammunition without suffering any casualties. The personnel responded to the call of duty in a most commendable manner. At 1052 she made a sound contact at 1800 yards on her port bow. She verified the contact which was however not in motion but dropped two charges at 100 and 150 feet. At 1052 she regained contact and dropped two charges at 200 feet. The contact was at 54° 13' 10" N - 165° 43' 4.3" W, bearing 005° from Ukatan Harbor Light.
A second attack came next evening on the 24th of June, l942, when the main assault on Dutch Harbor and nearby Fort Nears occurred. 18 bombers and 16 fighter planes approached the harbor from two directions in fleets of three planes each. The bombers dropped heavy explosives and incendiaries. while the fighters strafed the streets from an elevation of about 500 feet. A warehouse, a few oil tanks, and an empty aircraft hangar were hit and the old NORTHWESTERN bombed and destroyed by fire. Suddenly in the midst of the attack our Army fighters and medium bombers appeared out of the fog in the rear of the Japanese planes. The enemy were taken completely by surprise since they had no knowledge of our two secret army field at Cold Bay and Umnak. In stunned confusion they wheeled to attempt escape only to find themselves flying directly over the secret fields. The pursuing Warhawks downed at least two Zeros and perhaps two or three dive bombers before the rest disappeared in the enveloping fog. Meanwhile, the invading surface fleet had been located and attacked, several direct hits being scored by our planes before it scattered. The enemy was forced to withdraw with the loss of one cruiser and a few crippled vessels. The force was estimated to consist of two small carriers, two seaplane tenders, four to six transports and a full support of cruisers and destroyers. Apparently Dutch Harbor had been their immediate objective, after which they might have seized the Pribilofs to the north or made a mass landing on the Seward Peninsula, eventually occupying the coastal harbors and penetrating into the very heart of Alaska. The attack undoubtedly represented a major attempt at a surprise blow against the North American continent. When they found opposition at Dutch Harbor, and after a tremendous loss of air strength, the expedition chose the landing spot of faroff Kiska followed by Agattu and Attu Islands in the westernmost Aleutians as an alternative. Here they remained until we drove them out in the attack on Attu on 11 May, 1943. Meanwhile the ONONDAGA performed important convoy duty and assistance work in the Aleutians until the end of 1943. In July, 1942, while patrolling past Dutch Harbor in search of a reported submarine; she made contact and dropped charges with negative results. From July 17, 1942, she was assigned to Massacre Bay Patrol. On November 8, 1942, she arrived at Kodiak with a convoy.
Departing Women’s Bay, Kodiak, on the 16th of December, the CGC ONONDAGA proceeded to Pleasant Island, Icy Strait, changing course to return to Women’s Bay on the 17th. On the 19th she departed for St. Paul Harbor and moored alongside SS DAVID W. BRANCH. Informed by the Master of that vessel that it would be necessary for her to proceed to Women’s Bay for fuel prior to sailing eastward, the ONONDAGA returned to Women’s Bay on the same date.
On December 20, 1942 she departed Women’s Bay escorting the USS TIPPECANOE dropping convoy, at 2010 and proceeding to Juneau, arriving December 23, 1942. Departing Juneau, Alaska, on 27 December, 1942, the CGC ONONDAGA picked up a west-bound convoy of two merchant vessels in vicinity of Pleasant Island and escorted them toward Yakutat. One vessel was convoyed to Women’s Bay, Kodiak, where they arrived on 29 December. The ONONDAGA remained at N.O.B., Women’s Bay for the rest of the week.
DEPARTS DUTCH HARBOR AS ESCORT
The ONONDAGA continued to remain at Women’s Bay. On 6 January, she tried to conduct antisubmarine patrol off Kodiak entrance but severe weather precluded carrying out this order. On the 9th the ONONDAGA departed for Dutch Harbor as escort for the USS ST. MIHIEL.
TRANSFERS ANCHOR TO DRIFTING BOAT
The ONONDAGA and ST. MIHIEL reached Dutch Harbor on 11 January. On the 12th the former vessel proceeded to Broad Bay, anchoring near the SS RICHARD MARCH HOE, preparatory to escorting that vessel to Kodiak. This duty began on the 13th. At 1455 the ONONDAGA stopped alongside MTB-24, drifting in Unimak Pass, and upon request, transferred a small boat anchor to the MTB. At 1505 the convoy was directed to proceed independently, while the ONONDAGA proceeded on toward Kodiak.
SEARCHES FOR SURVIVORS OF GROUNDED SHIP
On the 15th at 0543, the ONONDAGA intercepted an SOS from SS MAPELE, who was aground at Cape Devine and needed immediate assistance. The ONODAGA changed course, arrived in the MAPELE's vicinity at 1237, and hove to, finding that the USS DISCOVERER and USS BERLE were also hove to nearby. By contacting the DISCOVERER, the ONONDAGA learned that the master and chief engineer were still on the MAPELE, that a motor boat was proceeding to take them off, and that the rest of the crew was believed to be somewhere on the beach. As existing sea conditions did not permit a close search of the rocks and small beaches, the ONONDAGA proceeded around Cape Devine and anchored in the cove south of Korovin Island, but at 1324 she was able to dispatch a rescue party to the beach and the DISCOVERER also dispatched a boatload of searchers. At 1650 the DISCOVERER departed for Sand Point after rescuing 48 out of 51 persons from the MAPELE. The three missing crew members were believed to be dead and somewhere on the beach. The boat from the ONONDAGA with an additional rescue party was dispatched, but at 1913 all boats and members of the rescue parties had returned without having found any signs of living or dead persons. On the 16th the ONONDAGA’s personnel took note of the MAPELE’s condition (she was listing about 20 degrees to port, her after deck was comletely awash, with seas breaking over it heavily, all deck cargo was missing, and her forward deck cargo was washing overboard), and as it appeared that nothing further could be accomplished until the weather and sea conditions moderated, the Coast Guard vessel proceeded toward Kodiak. But at 1633, following instructions, the ONONDAGA reversed course to take charge of the salvage of the wreck. She anchored at 2124 south of Korovin Island, Shumagin Islands, to await daylight.
ASSIGNED TO SALVAGING SS MAPELE
The ONONDAGA's inspection of the wrecked MAPELE on January 17 revealed that both vessel and cargo were a total loss. During the afternoon at low tide two 20mm guns were salvaged minus their stands, but no other equipment could be saved. The Coast Guard vessel departed the next day, stopped for water at Sand Point, and left there on the morning of the 19th for Kodiak, but bad weather caused her to reverse course and to stand into lee of Korovin Island, and later into lee of Sand Point. Departed Sand Point on the 20th and arrived at NOB, Women’s Bay, Kodiak at 1613 on 21 January, remaining there for the balance of the week.
The only time the ONONDAGA left her mooring at Women’s Bay Kodiak, during the week was on the 27th when she conducted antisubmarine patrol of f Kodiak entrance from 0842 to 1840.
STILL AT KODIAK
The ONONDAGA stood out into Chiniak Bay on 31 January, 1943, to check magnetic steering compass; conducted antisubmarine patrol off Kodiak entrance from 1203 to 1824 on 3 February; and on the 5th again stood out to check magnetic steering compass. Patrol, also scheduled for that day, was not conducted because of adverse weather. At all other times during the week the vessel was at NOB, Kodiak.
LOSES CONTACT WITH CONVOY
On 7 February, the ONONDAGA departed Women’s Bay, Kodiak, as escort for the SS COLUMBIA en route to Cross Sound. At 0220 on the 9th a strong gale, heavy snow, poor visibility and rough seas caused the Coast Guard vessel to lose contact with the convoy, which was not thereafter contacted. That afternoon she stood into Cross Sound and learned from the Routing Officer on the SWIFTSURE that the COLUMBIA had passed North Inian Head Light one hour later than the ONONDAGA. The ONONDAGA then proceeded and moored to Army Dock, Excursion Inlet, departing there on the 10th for conference at Pleasant Island. There she found that sailing of convoy was postponed due to adverse weather, so the rest of the 10th was spent breaking ice at the head of Excursion Inlet to free piles needed for operations on U. S. Army project. After completing this duty, the ONONDAGA returned to Army Dock, Excursion Inlet, mooring at 1647. The sailing of the convoy was again postponed on the 11th pending arrival of the SS TOLOA. On the 12th, the ONONDAGA stood out to Pleasant Island anchorage to assemble convoy consisting of the SS BARANOF, SS YUKON, SS TOLOA, SS DENALI, SS OTSEGO and SS TAKU. The convoy assembled at 1400 and departed to the westward. On the 13th, the OTSEGO and TAKU departed convoy for Yakutat and the DENALI, when in vicinity of Cape Hinchinbrook departed for Cordova.
LOCATES AND TOWS BARGE
The ONONDAGA continued escorting the TOLOA, YUKON and BARANOF. These last two vessels departed from the convoy at 0430 on the 14th and proceeded toward Seward while the ONONDAGA and TOLOA continued on to Kodiak, arriving there at 1858. The Coast Guard vessel departed on the 16th to locate PSB&D Barge No. 10, and sighted her the next day. With the help YP-92 she got the barge into deeper water, finally secured two manila hawsers to the barge, and departed towing it. The ONONDAGA was hove to with the tow off Cape Igvak in an easterly gale on 18 February, but was able to proceed the next day into the lee of Portage Bay. Moved on the 20th to smoother water at the western end of Wide Bay, where the ONONDAGA began pumping out barge with two portable gasoline pumps.
The ONONDAGA discontinued pumping out barge No. 10 on the 21st when it became evident that pumping was not effective for so large a leak. Bad weather kept the ONONDAGA anchored until the 25th. On that day she returned to the eastern end of Wide Bay to salvage towing wire previously previously buoyed while assisting the barge. After salvaging about 100 fathoms of the wire cable, the remainder, badly fouled, was cut away and the vessel departed for Kodiak, where she arrived on the 27th and released the barge to a tug for further disposition.
REFLOATS GROUNDED VESSEL
The ONONDAGA remained at Kodiak until 3 March, 1943, when she proceeded toward the grounded SS AMERICAN STAR off Woody Island, Kodiak. At 2250 on the 3rd strong flood current swept the ONONDAGA and USS YT-323 together, causing minor damage to the Coast Guard ship. Early on the 24th the USS AMERICAN STAR was refloated and anchored during a dense fog. The ONONDAGA returned to NOB, Women’s Bay, and after undergoing repairs, she departed that same day towing the ex-ALGONQUIN to Seattle via Cross Sound and Ketchikan, and was still underway as the week ended.
OVERHAUL AT SEATTLE
From 14 to 31 March, 1943, the ONONDAGA was undergoing overhaul and conversion at the Seattle plant of Todd Drydocks, Inc.
April began with the ONONDAGA still undergoing overhaul and conversion. On the 25th she left Todd Drydocks, Inc., for a brief trial run and then moored at Pier 41, Seattle. Between then and the 30th, overhaul was completed, and supplies were taken on and trial runs were made. The ONONDAGA departed Pier 41 on 30 April in Port Angeles Harbor, Washington, to await departure of SS TOLOA, whom she was to escort.
On 1 May, 1943, the CGC ONONDAGA departed Port Angeles as escort of SS TOLOA en route to Kodiak, Alaska. Arrived Kodiak on the 5th and on the 7th departed Women’s Bay escorting SS TOLOA to Dutch Harbor. On the 11th departed Dutch Harbor and met SS HENDERSON LEULLING and escorted her to Dutch Harbor. On 13th departed Dutch Harbor escorting USAT NORTH COAST to a point 50 miles through Unimak Pass returning to Dutch Harbor on the 14th. On the 15th departed Dutch Harbor escorting SS YUKON to Adak, arriving Kuluk Bay on 17th and on same day proceeded to Sweeper Cove, relieving CGC ATLANTA on Dog Patrol outside between Head Rock and Oglala Point, Kuluk Bay. On 18th discontinued patrol and anchored in Kuluk Bay, departing same day to rendezvous USS PLATTE. On 19th contacted USS PLATTE and escorted her to Adak via Amukta Pass, arriving Kuluk Bay on 20th. On 21st assumed Dog Patrol 2 between Head Rock and Black Point, Kuluk Bay maintaining it through the 24th. On that day departed for Dutch Harbor in convoy with SS TOLOA, SS CHIEF WASHAKIE and USAT CHIRIKOF arriving on 26th. On 27th formed convoy in company with USS HERALD of four vessels en route Kuluk Bay, arriving on 29th. On 30th formed convoy of two vessels in company with USS PC-600 en route Amchitka, arriving on 31st. On same day began escorting SS SAM JACKSON from Amchitka to Adak.
Arriving with the SS SAM JACKSON at Kuluk Bay on the 1st of June, the ONONDAGA departed on the 24th en route Dutch Harbor escorting the SS CHIRKOF, arriving on the 6th. On the 8th she was underway en route to rendezvous with with USAT OTSEGO at Chernofski Harbor, arriving same day. On the 9th she stood into Dutch Harbor with the OTSEGO and on the 10th stood out to rendezvous with USS RAMAPO on the 11th and began escorting her to Dutch Harbor, arriving on 12th. On the 13th stood out of Dutch Harbor to rendezvous on the 14th with USS BRAZOS and began escorting her to Dutch Harbor via Unimak Pass arriving same day. On 18th stood out of Dutch Harbor with convoy of two vessels en route Adak, arriving on 20th. On 23rd departed Adak escorting SS TOLOA en route Atka arriving same day. On the 23rd took aboard 54 men and two officers for transportation to Kanaja Island but returned to Adak on orders. On 25th departed Kuluk for Dutch Harbor for Nazan Bay, Atka, arriving on 30th.
On July 1st escorted SS MORLEM to Dutch Harbor. On 24th rendezvoused with USS TIPPECANOE escorting her to Dutch Harbor. On 8th rendezvoused with USS RAMAPO and escorted her to Dutch Harbor. On 10th escorted USS RAMAPO and SS WM. T. SHERMAN to Adak via Chernofski arriving on 13th. On 14th escorted RAMAPO and MARY D to Dutch Harbor. On 17th transported salvage gear to Attu. On 21st proceeded to Shenya Island and assumed patrol. On 24th escorted C & GS EXPLORER to Buldir Island to survey uncharted waters until 31st.
While engaged in guarding the C & GS. EXPLORER who was running survey lines in the uncharted waters in the vicinity of Buldir Island, Alaska, the CGC ONONDAGA was ordered to Massacre Bay, Attu. On August 24th she escorted a tug and an LCT craft to Otkriti Bay, Agattu, where the vessels discharged cargo and then returned to Massacre Bay. After meeting an incoming convoy on the 6th, she returned to Buldir Island with the RESTORER, who continued her survey work until the 11th, returning to Massacre Bay. On the 16th the ONONDAGA met the USS S-28 and and escorted her to Massacre Bay. On the 18th she escorted the S-40 into the Bay, relieving the USS CHARLESTON of patrol. On the 22nd she towed the USA Tug COMMODORE to Adak and from there escorted a convoy to Dutch Harbor, where she scored until the 31st.
ESCORT TO ATTU
Remaining at Dutch Harbor until September 8th, the CGC ONONDAGA underwent miscellaneous repair and maintainence work. On the 8th freight was loaded aboard for transportation to Submarine Facility, Attu. Stood out of Dutch Harbor at 1806 and formed convoy consisting of the SS AMERICAN STAR and the SS SAM JACKSON who were en route Adak Island. Arrived with convoy and anchored in Kuluk Bay, Adak Island on 10th. Moored on 14th for electrical installation work and remained until 17th when she departed escorting SS THOMAS CONDON to Massacre Bay, Attu Island. Arriving on 19th she moored at Navy Dock at 1500 and unloaded freight. Departed Attu on 21st with convoy consisting of SS SAMUEL D. INGHAM and SS JOS. L. MEEK with USS PC 1080 as additional escort in route Kuluk Bay. Arrived Kuluk Bay on 23rd and departed same date, en route Tanaga Island escorting SS WILLIAM L. GARRISON. Was relieved of convoy on 2lst near Tanaga Island by USS ORACLE and returned to Kuluk Bay where she remained until 30th.
On the 1st of October, 1943, the CGC ONONDAGA stood out of Kuluk Bay escorting the SS CHIEF WASHAKIE to Amchitka, arriving on the 2nd. On the 3rd she departed for Kiska Harbor remaining there until the 7th. On that day she departed Kiska for Adak escorting the SS CARL SHURZ, SS J. B. FLOYD and the USAT JAMES S. CLARKE with the USS AUSTIN as additional escort. On the 12th escorted the SS WILLIAM GARRISON out of Kuluk Bay and returned. On the 17th proceeded to Sitkin Island and escorted SS LYMANN BEECHER to Amchitka, mooring on the 18th. On the 19th escorted BEECHER to Kiska, returning to Amchitka on the 21st, and escorting SS CUMMINGS to Kiska, SC-997 as additional escort. On 22nd escorted SS BEECHER to Kuluk Bay, Adak Island. On 26th proceeded to search for a drifting LCT returning to Kuluk Bay same day. On 30th escorted SS TEXADA to Kiska.
CGC ONONDAGA ON CONVOY ESCORT
On 1st November, 1943, CGC ONONDAGA was escorting the SS TEXADA from Kuluk Bay, Adak Island, to Kiska Island. Arrived in Kiska Harbor at 1155 and moored. On the 5th began escorting SS JACK LONDON to Adak, anchoring on 7th. On the 17th stood out of Kuluk Bay, Adak, with convoy SS COLUMBIA en route Kiska Island, anchoring on 18th. On 21st stood out of Kiska Harbor escorting SS AMERICAN STAR, and SS COLUMBIA en route Adak, mooring on 23rd. On 2ltth began escorting SS RESTORER into Asuksak Pass, standing into Shelter Cove, Igitkin Island at 1105. On 25th engaged in cable laying operations to Korovin Bay, Atka Island. On 29th stood out of Korovin Bay escorting RESTORER and anchored in Nasan Bay, Atka Island at 1834. On 30th began escorting RESTORER to Dutch Harbor.
SCREENING AND ESCORT DUTY
The ONONDAGA, escorting USAT RESTORER to Dutch Harbor, Alaska, reached that point on 1 December and left again on the 3rd to escort the same vessel to Attu, where they arrived on the 6th. For the next several days the RESTORER was engaged in cable repairs off Shemya, Alaska, and the ONONDAGA screened her during these operations, mooring at Attu when not screening. At 2115 on the 12th, the ONONDAGA departed Shemya, arrived at Adak on the 14th, departed from there with the RESTORER on the 15th, and arrived at Dutch Harbor two days later. The ONONDAGA remained moored at Dutch Harbor until 23 December, when she left for Adak with SS HENRY FAILING, arriving at destination on the 25th. On the 28th the Coast Guard vessel departed with convoy consisting of SS THOMPSON for Kiska, where they arrived on the 30th. The ONONDAGA was still moored there as the month ended.
(The above is the entire available record on the ONONDAGA during World War II.)
Taken from: United States Coast Guard. Statistical Division/Historical Section. Public Information Division. Transports and Escorts. V. (2 Vols.) Washington: Public Information Division, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, Volume 1, Escorts, Mar 1 1949, pp. 88-91.
No caption/date/photo number; photographer unknown.
No caption/date/photo number; photographer unknown.
No caption; photo taken during World War II probably in Alaskan waters;
no date; no photo number; photographer unknown.
Courtesy of the Naval Historical Center; #26-G-02-05-46(2).
Cutter History File. USCG Historian's Office, USCG HQ, Washington, D.C.
Donald Canney. U.S. Coast Guard and Revenue Cutters, 1790-1935. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1995.
Robert Scheina. U.S. Coast Guard Cutters & Craft of World War II. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1982.
U.S. Coast Guard. Record of Movements: Vessels of the United States Coast Guard: 1790 - December 31, 1933. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1934; 1989 (reprint).